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Specifications
C64 Specs
VIC20 Specs
C16/PLUS4 Specs
CPU 65XX Microprocessor

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 C64 Specs

C64 Overviews
C64 Technical Data
C64 I/O Map
C64 Interrupts and NMIs

C64 I/O Specs
C64 Memory Banking and Datasette
C64 Video Controller
C64 Sound Interface
C64 Complex Interface Adapters

Other
Disk Drive
CPU 65XX Microprocessor
Z80 Microprocessor Cartridge
KERNAL Functions
External Connectors


 C64 Technical Data

COMMODORE 64 (C64)

Microprocessor
  6510A 8bit CPU, 1.02 MHz (NTSC) or 0.98 MHz (PAL), Compatible with 6502
Memory
  64Kbytes RAM (used for both work RAM and video RAM)
  16Kbytes KERNAL/BASIC ROM
  4Kbytes Character ROM (156 unique chars & many duplicated/inverted chars)
  1024x4bit Color RAM
Display
  40x25 Character Text mode, or 320x200 (or 160x200) Pixels Bitmap mode
  40x25 Color attributes used for both Text and Bitmap modes
  High resolution allows two colors (out of 16) per 8x8 tile
  Low resolution allows four colors (out of 16) per 4x8 tile
  8 Sprites (each HiRes 24x21 one color, or LowRes 12x21 three colors)
  Horizontal and vertical sprite magnification (normal and double size)
  Sprite-to-Sprite and Sprite-to-Background collision detection
6581 Sound Interface Device
  3 independent tone generators - each with 9 octaves
  Each voice includes programmable ADSR generator (Attack, Decay,
  Sustain, Release) and control of sawtooth, triangle, square,
  variable pulse and noise waveforms
  Full filtering capabilities with low, high and band pass filters
  External sound input
Keyboard
  66 Keys, including not more than two (2) cursor keys
Connectors
  User port
  Serial port (for Printer or Disk drive)
  ROM cartridge port
  2 Joystick/paddle ports
  2 Video ports (Monitor or TV)
  C1530 Cassette drive interface port (aka Datasette)
Power Supply
  External Supply, +5V DC and 9V AC(!).


 C64 I/O Map

CPU On-Chip I/O Port
  0000      MOS 6510 CPU On-Chip I/O Port Direction
  0001      MOS 6510 CPU On-Chip I/O Port Data - Memory and Datasette
D000-D02E MOS 6566 VIDEO INTERFACE CONTROLLER (VIC)
  D000      Sprite 0 X Pos
  D001      Sprite 0 Y Pos
  D002      Sprite 1 X Pos
  D003      Sprite 1 Y Pos
  D004      Sprite 2 X Pos
  D005      Sprite 2 Y Pos
  D006      Sprite 3 X Pos
  D007      Sprite 3 Y Pos
  D008      Sprite 4 X Pos
  D009      Sprite 4 Y Pos
  D00A      Sprite 5 X Pos
  D00B      Sprite 5 Y Pos
  D00C      Sprite 6 X Pos
  D00D      Sprite 6 Y Pos
  D00E      Sprite 7 X Pos
  D00F      Sprite 7 Y Pos
  D010      Sprites 0-7 X Pos (msb of X coord.)
  D011      VIC Control Register (1)
  D012      Read Raster / Write Raster Value for Compare IRQ
  D013      Lightpen Latch X Pos
  D014      Lightpen Latch Y Pos
  D015      Sprite display Enable: 1 = Enable
  D016      VIC Control Register (2)
  D017      Sprites 0-7 Expand 2x Vertical (Y)
  D018      VIC Memory Control Register
  D019      VIC Interrupt Flag Register
  D01A      IRQ Mask Register: 1 = Interrupt Enabled
  D01B      Sprite to Background Display Priority
  D01C      Sprites 0-7 Multi-Color Mode Select
  D01D      Sprites 0-7 Expand 2x Horizontal (X)
  D01E      Sprite to Sprite Collision Detect
  D01F      Sprite to Background Collision Detect
  D020      Border Color
  D021      Background Color 0
  D022      Background Color 1
  D023      Background Color 2
  D024      Background Color 3
  D025      Sprite Multi-Color Register 0
  D026      Sprite Multi-Color Register 1
  D027      Sprite 0 Color
  D028      Sprite 1 Color
  D029      Sprite 2 Color
  D02A      Sprite 3 Color
  D02B      Sprite 4 Color
  D02C      Sprite 5 Color
  D02D      Sprite 6 Color
  D02E      Sprite 7 Color
  D02F-D03F Not used (always FFh)
  D040-D3FF Mirrors of above VIC registers (repeated each 40h bytes)
D400-D7FF MOS 6581 SOUND INTERFACE DEVICE (SID)
  D400      Voice 1: Frequency Control - Low-Byte
  D401      Voice 1: Frequency Control - High-Byte
  D402      Voice 1: Pulse Waveform Width - Low-Byte
  D403      Voice 1: Pulse Waveform Width - High-Nybble
  D404      Voice 1: Control Register
  D405      Envelope Generator 1: Attack / Decay Cycle Control
  D406      Envelope Generator 1: Sustain / Release Cycle Control
  D407      Voice 2: Frequency Control - Low-Byte
  D408      Voice 2: Frequency Control - High-Byte
  D409      Voice 2: Pulse Waveform Width - Low-Byte
  D40A      Voice 2: Pulse Waveform Width - High-Nybble
  D40B      Voice 2: Control Register
  D40C      Envelope Generator 2: Attack / Decay Cycle Control
  D40D      Envelope Generator 2: Sustain / Release Cycle Control
  D40E      Voice 3: Frequency Control - Low-Byte
  D40F      Voice 3: Frequency Control - High-Byte
  D410      Voice 3: Pulse Waveform Width - Low-Byte
  D411      Voice 3: Pulse Waveform Width - High-Nybble
  D412      Voice 3: Control Register
  D413      Envelope Generator 3: Attack / Decay Cycle Control
  D414      Envelope Generator 3: Sustain / Release Cycle Control
  D415      Filter Cutoff Frequency: Low-Nybble (Bits 2-0)
  D416      Filter Cutoff Frequency: High-Byte
  D417      Filter Resonance Control / Voice Input Control
  D418      Select Filter Mode and Volume
  D419      Analog/Digital Converter Game Paddle 1 (0-255)
  D41A      Analog/Digital Converter Game Paddle 2 (0-255)
  D41B      Oscillator 3 Random Number Generator
  D41C      Envelope Generator 3 Output
  D41D-D41F Not used (always 00h)
  D420-D7FF Mirrors of above SID registers (repeated each 20h bytes)
Color RAM
  D800-DBFF Color RAM (1000 Nybbles, plus 24 unused Nybbles)
DC00-DCFF MOS 6526 Complex Interface Adapter (CIA) #1
  DC00      Data Port A (Keyboard, Joystick, Paddles): Game Port 2
  DC01      Data Port B (Keyboard, Joystick, Paddles, Lightpen): Game Port 1
  DC02      Data Direction Register - Port A
  DC03      Data Direction Register - Port B
  DC04      Timer A: Low-Byte
  DC05      Timer A: High-Byte
  DC06      Timer B: Low-Byte
  DC07      Timer B: High-Byte
  DC08      Time-of-Day Clock: 1/10 Seconds
  DC09      Time-of-Day Clock: Seconds
  DC0A      Time-of-Day Clock: Minutes
  DC0B      Time-of-Day Clock: Hours + AM/PM Flag (Bit 7)
  DC0C      Synchronous Serial I/O Data Buffer
  DC0D      CIA Interrupt Control Register (Read IRQs/Write Mask)
  DC0E      CIA Control Register A
  DC0F      CIA Control Register B
  DC10-DCFF Mirrors of above CIA1 registers (repeated each 10h bytes)
DD00-DDFF MOS 6526 Complex Interface Adapter (CIA) #2
  DD00      Data Port A (Serial Bus, RS-232, VIC Memory Control)
  DD01      Data Port B (User Port, RS-232)
  DD02      Data Direction Register - Port A
  DD03      Data Direction Register - Port B
  DD04      Timer A: Low-Byte
  DD05      Timer A: High-Byte
  DD06      Timer B: Low-Byte
  DD07      Timer B: High-Byte
  DD08      Time-of-Day Clock: 1/10 Seconds
  DD09      Time-of-Day Clock: Seconds
  DD0A      Time-of-Day Clock: Minutes
  DD0B      Time-of-Day Clock: Hours + AM/PM Flag (Bit 7)
  DD0C      Synchronous Serial I/O Data Buffer
  DD0D      CIA Interrupt Control Register (Read NMIs/Write Mask)
  DD0E      CIA Control Register A
  DD0F      CIA Control Register B
  DD10-DDFF Mirrors of above CIA2 registers (repeated each 10h bytes)
Reserved
  DE00-DEFF Reserved for Future I/O Expansion
  DF00-DFFF Reserved for Future I/O Expansion

The two open I/O slots are for general purpose user I/O, special purpose I/O cartridges (such as IEEE), and have been tentatively designated for enabling the Z-80 cartridge (CP/M option) and for interfacing to a low-cost high-speed disk system.
  DE00-DEFF   Open I/O slot #1 (CP/M Enable)             256 Bytes
  DF00-DFFF   Open I/O slot #2 (Disk)                    256 Bytes


 C64 Interrupts and NMIs

Possible IRQ (Maskable Interrupt Request) Sources
  Expansion Port <-- /IRQ-pin
  VIC <-- Lightpen Trigger
  VIC <-- Sprite to Sprite Collision
  VIC <-- Sprite to Background Collision
  VIC <-- Raster Compare Match
  CIA #1 <-- Timer A Interrupt
  CIA #1 <-- Timer B Interrupt
  CIA #1 <-- TOD Alarm Interrupt
  CIA #1 <-- Serial Port Interrupt
  CIA #1 <-- FLAG <-- Cassette Read
  CIA #1 <-- FLAG <-- Serial Bus SRQ
VIC/CIA registers allow to enable/disable all IRQ sources separately, and to determine which source(s) have caused the IRQ (except that Cassette Read and Serial Bus SRQ are sharing the same CIA bits). The CPU can disable all IRQs by setting the I-flag.
The CPU shares the same vector, located at [FFFEh], for BRK opcode and for IRQs. The KERNAL ROM (if it is enabled) pushes the reqisters A,X,Y on stack, examines the B-flag, and does then redirect to IRQ=[0314h] or BRK=[0316h].

Possible NMI (Non-Maskable Interrupt) Sources
  Expansion Port <-- /NMI-pin
  Memory Controller <-- Trigger/Capaciator <-- Keyboard RESTORE-key
  CIA #2 <-- Timer A Interrupt
  CIA #2 <-- Timer B Interrupt
  CIA #2 <-- TOD Alarm Interrupt
  CIA #2 <-- Serial Port Interrupt
  CIA #2 <-- FLAG <-- User Port <-- Custom Hardware connected to Pin B
  CIA #2 <-- FLAG <-- User Port <-- RS-232 Adapter: Received Data Input
  CIA #2 <-- FLAG <-- User Port <-- Centronics Printer Adaper: Busy
CIA registers allow to enable/disable all CIA NMI sources separately, and to determine which CIA source(s) have caused the NMI (different types of hardware may be connected to the user port though). The CPU cannot disable NMIs by setting the I-flag.
The NMI vector is located at [FFFAh], the KERNAL ROM (if it is enabled) redirects NMIs to vector [0318h], without pushing any registers.
The RESTORE-keys trigger/capaciatior prevents switch bounce, the memory controller issues only a short NMI pulse at the time when the key gets pressed (this prevents a stuck NMI signal, allowing CIA2 to generate new NMIs even when the key is kept held down).
  probably possible to "disable" the RESTORE-key by
  a not-acknowledged CIA interrupt signal ???
Caution: Because the RESTORE-key cannot be disabled by software, your program <must> provide valid NMI vector(s) which must point to a RTI opcode or other NMI handler, otherwise the C64 crashes when touching the RESTORE-Key.


 C64 Memory Banking and Datasette

0000h - MOS 6510 Data Direction
  Bit  Expl.
  0-7  Direction for Bit 0-7 of Port 0001h  (0=Input, 1=Output)
In the C64, this would be usually configured as 2Fh (101111b), so that Bit 4 is used as input, Bit 0-3,5 as outputs, Bit 6-7 don't care.

0001h - MOS 6510 Micro-Processor On-Chip I/O Port - Memory & Cassette
For Cassette Data Input see Port DC0Dh (CIA #1 Interrupt Control).
  Bit  Expl.
  0    /LORAM Signal (*)        (0=RAM, 1=BASIC ROM at A000-BFFF)
  1    /HIRAM Signal (*)        (0=RAM, 1=Kernal ROM at E000-FFFF)
  2    /CHAREN Signal (*)       (0=Character ROM, 1=I/O at D000-DFFF)
  3    Cassette Data Output     (Pulse)
  4    Cassette Switch Sense    (0=Switch Opened, 1=Switch Closed)
                                (0=play button down)
  5    Cassette Motor Control   (0=Motor On, 1=Motor Off)
  6-7  Not used
(*) In general, Bit 0-3 are following the above specifications, however, some combinations of these bits (and of some expansion port pins) will result in special memory modes, see Memory Configurations table below.

Memory Configurations
The table below shows which IO and ROM areas are enabled, depending on the value (0-3) of the lower two bits of Port 0001h, and on the expansion ports /GAME and /EXROM pins.
     Normal Operation   8K Expansion            16K Expansion
 Val /game=/exrom=high  /game=high,/exrom=low   /game=low,/exrom=low
  0  RAM                RAM                     IO/C,KERNAL
  1  IO/C               IO/C                    IO/RAM
  2  IO/C,KERNAL        IO/C,KERNAL             IO/C,KERNAL,ROMH
  3  IO/C,KERNAL,BASIC  IO/C,KERNAL,BASIC,ROML  IO/C,KERNAL,ROMH,ROML
Note on IO/C (or IO/RAM): Bit 2 of Port 0001h (/CHAREN) selects between IO-Ports and CHARACTER-ROM (or RAM). Any disabled ROM areas (ie. not listed in the table) contain RAM.

Memory Map
  Addr  Bytes  Content
  0000  2      IO                   ;CPU On-chip I/O ports (no RAM here)
  0002  254    RAM                  ;BIOS system data
  0100  256    RAM                  ;CPU Stack
  0200  1.5K   RAM                  ;BIOS system data
  0800  30K    RAM                  ;Normal BASIC Program space
  8000  8K     RAM or ROML          ;Optional Cartridge ROML space
  A000  8K     RAM or BASIC or ROMH ;BASIC ROM, or ROMH space
  C000  4K     RAM                  ;RAM only
  D000  4K     RAM or IO or CHAR    ;I/O Ports+Colour RAM or CHAR ROM
  E000  8K     RAM or KERNAL        ;KERNAL ROM
Even if ROM is enabled, it is possible to write to underlaying RAM, and the display controller always reads from RAM - allowing to use the same memory area for ROM and VRAM.

Expansion ROM Cartridges
Commodore 64 Expansion Cartridges are automatically started if the first nine bytes of the cartridge ROM at location 8000h contain specific data:
  8000h-8001h Cold Start Vector
  8002h-8003h Warm Start Vector
  8004h-8008h ASCII ID Code "CBM80" with Bit7 set in the first 3 letters

Ultimax video game console mode (/GAME=LOW,/EXROM=HIGH)
Rarely used memory mode used for Ultimax video games. The upper 60K of RAM, and all ROM in the C64 are disabled. Ports 0000h and 0001h have no effect on memory mapping, but may cause problems when attempted to be used as RAM???.
  E000-FFFF=ROMH, 8000-9FFF=ROML, D000-DFFF=IO, 0000-0FFF=RAM, other=N/A
The game is started directly by CPU Entrypoint vector at [FFFCh].
Note that the 2K byte "expansion RAM" for the ULTIMAX, if required, is accessed out of the COMMODORE 64 and any RAM in the cartridge is ignored.

XXX...Explanation for the bits of $0001:
  7 - unused (Flash 8: 0=8MHz/1=1MHz)
  6 - unused (C128: ASCII/DIN sense/switch (1=ASCII/0=DIN))
Note to bit 6: This bit is used to select either the ASCII or the DIN character ROM of a C128. When data direction is set to INPUT, the charset is selected externally with the ASCII/DIN key.


 C64 Video Controller

MOS 6566 VIDEO INTERFACE CONTROLLER (VIC)

I/O Registers
C64 VIC Control Registers
C64 VIC Sprite Registers
C64 VIC Color Registers

Display Data
C64 VIC Background Display Modes
C64 VIC Sprite Display
C64 VIC Character Sets

Timings
C64 VIC Rendering
C64 VIC Dimensions and Timings


 C64 VIC Control Registers

D011h - VIC Control Register 1
  Bit  Name  Expl.
  7    RC8   Raster Compare Bit 8       (See below, Port D012h)
  6    ECM   Extended Color Text Mode   (0=Normal, 1=Extended)
  5    BMM   Bitmap Mode                (0=Text, 1=Bitmap)
  4    DEN   Display Enable             (0=Blank/Border Color, 1=Enable BG/MOB)
  3    RSEL  Row Select Display Height  (0=24 Rows, 1=25 Rows)
  0-2  Y0-2  Smooth Scroll Y Position   (0-7)

D016h - VIC Control Register 2
  Bit  Name  Expl.
  6-7  -     Unused
  5    RES   ALWAYS SET THIS BIT TO 0 !   ---  Huh, what/why ???
  4    MCM   Multi-Color Mode             (0=Disable, 1=Enable)
  3    CSEL  Column Select Display Width  (0=38 Columns, 1=40 Columns)
  0-2  X0-2  Smooth Scroll to X Position  (0-7)

D012h - Raster Register
Reading from RC0-8 returns the current scanline.
Writing to RC0-8 defines the raster compare IRQ scanline.
  Bit  Name  Expl.
  0-7  RC0-7 Raster Compare/Scanline
For both reading and writing, the most significant bit (RC8) is located in Bit 7 of Port D011h.
The visible display window is in range 51-251 (33h-FBh). - That are, 201 lines ???
When the current raster matches the written value, the raster interrupt latch is set.

D013h - Lightpen Latch X Position (LPX) (Divided by two)
D014h - Lightpen Latch Y Position (LPY)
The lightpen input latches the current screen position into LPX,LPY on a low-going edge. The LPX value is cut down to 8bits (that is the usual 9bit X Position divided by two).
The lightpen latch may be triggered only once per frame, and subsequent triggers within the same frame will have no effect. To eliminate dirt, read LPX and LPY for at least 3 frames, and confirm that all are (approximately) at the same position.

D018h - VIC Memory Control Register
Selects the Video Matrix Base Address in steps of 1024 bytes (400h), and the Character Base Address in steps of 2048 bytes (800h). In Bitmap modes Bit 1-2 are ignored, thus using steps of 8192 bytes (2000h).
  Bit  Name  Expl.
  4-7  VM#   Video Matrix Base Address Bit 13-10
  1-3  CB#   Character Dot-Data Base Address Bit 13-11
  0    -     Not used
In the C64, Bit 14-15 of Video Matrix/Character Base are controlled by CIA #2 Data Port A (Port DD00h, Bit 0-1), values 0-3 specify VRAM addresses CXXXh,8XXXh,4XXXh,0XXXh, in exactly this (reversed) order.
Caution: Selection of specific Character Base Address redirects to character ROM:
  1000h or 9000h  -->  1st half of Character ROM (D000h)
  1800h or 9800h  -->  2nd half of Character ROM (D800h)
When actually selecting D000h or D800h as Base, charcter ROM is NOT accessed ??? Instead underlaying RAM ??? When Bitmap memory crosses 1XXXh area, ROM is (NOT) accessed also ???
VRAM may be located under ROM, and can be displayed even if overlaying ROM is enabled ???

Note: Color RAM is always located at D800h-DBFFh, regardless of above.

D019h - VIC Interrupt Flag Register
  Bit  Name  Expl.
  7    IRQ   Set on Any Enabled VIC IRQ Condition       (0=None, 1=IRQ)
  4-6  -     Not used
  3    ILP   Lightpen Triggered IRQ Flag                (0=None, 1=IRQ)
  2    IMMC  Sprite to Sprite Collision IRQ Flag        (0=None, 1=IRQ)
  1    IMBC  Sprite to Background Collision IRQ Flag    (0=None, 1=IRQ)
  0    IRST  Raster Compare IRQ Flag                    (0=None, 1=IRQ)
Reading returns the (latched) interrupt flags. Writing "1" into Bit(s) 0-3 acknowledges (clears) the respective interrupt flag(s).

D01Ah - Interrupt Enable Register
  Bit  Name  Expl.
  4-7  -     Not used
  3    ELP   Lightpen Triggered              (0=Disable, 1=Enable)
  2    EMMC  Sprite to Sprite Collision      (0=Disable, 1=Enable)
  1    EMBC  Sprite to Background Collision  (0=Disable, 1=Enable)
  0    ERST  Raster Compare                  (0=Disable, 1=Enable)


 C64 VIC Sprite Registers

D000h,D002h,D004h,D006h,D008h,D00Ah,D00Ch,D00Eh - Sprite 0-7 Position X
Value 24 is the left-most visible pixel (in 40-column mode).
"X locations 23 to 347 ($17-$157) and Y locations 50 to 249 ($32-$F9) are visible." Ah yes, this results in a horizontal range of 325 (321 when using hex-format), and vertical range of 200, undeclared plus/minus parts offscreen areas ??? Sprites are smoothly moved at 1pix resolution even when using magnification or lowres/multicolor ???

The PAL dot clock counter operates in range 0..1F7h (63 CPU cycles * 8 dots), respectively a MOB at value 1F7h appears one pixel left from a MOB at value 0. MOBs at 1F8h..1FFh are not displayed.
Early NTSC units use range 0..1FFh (64*8), allowing to use values 0..1FFh.
Most (newer) NTSC units use range 0..207h (65*8), respectively, it is probably impossible to position MOBs at the next 8 pixels at the left from position 0.


D001h,D003h,D005h,D007h,D009h,D00Bh,D00Dh,D00Fh - Sprite 0-7 Position Y
Value 50 is the first line (in 25-row mode).
MOB display is activated when the MOB enable bit is set, and the MOB vertical position setting matches the current raster value, and only if it isn't already activated. Once when activated, the MOB will be displayed in the next 21 scanlines (or 42 scanlines if magnified), during this time, changes to the MOB enable bit, or to the MOB vertical position setting have no effect.

D010h - Sprite 0-7 Position X (Upper Bit)
Most significant X position bits for Sprite 0-7 in Bits 0-7 respectively.

D015 - Sprites 0-7 Enable
  Bit  Name  Expl.
  0-7  M#E   Sprite 0-7 Enable        (0=Hidden, 1=Display)

D017 - Sprites 0-7 Expand Vertical (Y)
  Bit  Name  Expl.
  0-7  M#YE  Sprite 0-7 Expand Y      (0=Normal, 1=Magnified by two)

D01B - Sprites 0-7 to Background Display Priority
Selects the Sprite-to-Background priority of each sprite. Even when using "Behind BG" priority, sprites still have priority above "Bkgd #0 or multi-color bit pair 01". (???)
  Bit  Name  Expl.
  0-7  M#DP  Sprite 0-7 Priority   (0=Above BG, 1=Behind BG)  OR VICE-VERSA ???
The VIC first processes the Sprite-to-Sprite priority (that is, Sprite 0 having highest, and Sprite 7 having lowest priority). And then, only (!) the sprite with highest priority is displayed above/behind background.

D01C - Sprites 0-7 Multi-Color Mode Select
  Bit  Name  Expl.
  0-7  M#MC  Sprite 0-7 Multi Color   (0=Normal, 1=Multi Color)
Increases the Sprite color depth to 4 colors (2 bits), using horizontally magnified Low Resolution 12x21 dots.

D01D - Sprites 0-7 Expand Horizontal (X)
  Bit  Name  Expl.
  0-7  M#XE  Sprite 0-7 Expand X      (0=Normal, 1=Magnified by two)
When combining Expand-X and Multi-Color, the sprite is magnified twice, each dot is then sized as four normal pixels horizontally.

D01E - Sprite to Sprite Collision Detect (Read Only)
When non-transparent pixels of two (or more) sprites overlap each other, collision bits for each of these sprites will be set.
  Bit  Name  Expl.
  0-7  M#M   Sprite 0-7 Collision Flag  (0=Normal, 1=Collision)
Collisions are detected even if sprites are located offscreen.
The IMMC IRQ Bit becomes set when this register changes from 00h to a non-zero value.
This register is automatically cleared after reading.

D01F - Sprite to Background Collision Detect
When non-transparent pixels of any sprites overlap non-transparent background pixels, collision bits for any such sprites will be set.
"For special applications, the display data from the 0-1 multicolor bit pair also does not cause a collision. This feature permits their use as background display data without interfering with true MOB collisions." ???
  Bit  Name  Expl.
  0-7  M#D   Sprite 0-7 Collision Flag  (0=Normal, 1=Collision)
Offscreen collisions may occur in 38 column mode if overlapping the two horizontally offscreen hidden columns.
The IMBC IRQ Bit becomes set when this register changes from 00h to a non-zero value.
This register is automatically cleared after reading.


 C64 VIC Color Registers

Color Codes
All registers below are 4bit registers, of which the upper 4bits are unused, the lower 4bits define a color by using the following codes:
  0   Black        8   Orange
  1   White        9   Brown
  2   Red          10  Light red
  3   Cyan         11  Dark grey
  4   Purple       12  Medium grey
  5   Green        13  Light green
  6   Blue         14  Light blue
  7   Yellow       15  Light grey
Note: In Multi-Color Character Mode, only color codes 0-7 can be used in Color RAM because Bit 3 of the color nybble is used to select the resolution.

D020 - Border Color
Also, this color is used when DEN=0.

D021 - Background Color 0
D022 - Background Color 1
D023 - Background Color 2
D024 - Background Color 3

D025 - Sprite Multi-Color Register 0
D026 - Sprite Multi-Color Register 1

D027-D02E - Sprite 0-7 Colors
  Sprite  0     1     2     3     4     5     6     7
  Port    D027  D028  D029  D02A  D02B  D02C  D02D  D02E

D800-DBFF - Color RAM 1024 Nybbles
Contains 1000 Color Nybbles for each of the 40x25 background characters, which are used for all Character Modes and for Multi-Color Bitmap Mode (but not for Standard Bitmap Mode).
Note: Additional 24 nybbles exist at the end of the Color RAM, these might be used for whatever (4bit-) data storage.

Bitmap Color Attributes
In both Standard and Multi-Color Bitmap mode, the 1000 bytes in the Video Matrix VRAM area are containing color attributes for each of the 40x25 bitmap character regions, the whole 8bit of each byte are used, allowing to select two 4bit colors.


 C64 VIC Background Display Modes

Mode Selection
Background modes are selected by BMM, MCM, ECM bits in VIC Control Registers 1 and 2 (Port D011h, D016h):
  BMM ECM MCM  Mode Name
  0   0   0    Standard Character Mode
  0   0   1    Multi-Color Character Mode
  0   1   0    Extended Color Character Mode
  0   1   1    Reserved
  1   0   0    Standard Bitmap Mode
  1   0   1    Multi-Color Bitmap Mode
  1   1   0    Reserved
  1   1   1    Reserved

Video Memory
Memory usage in character modes:
  2048 Bytes    Character Data         (256 tiles)
  1000 Bytes    Video Matrix Data      (40x25 tile numbers)
  1000 Nybbles  Color RAM              (40x25 color attributes)
Memory usage in Bitmap modes:
  8000 Bytes    Character Data         (40x25 tiles) - Addressed by CB13
  1000 Bytes    Video Matrix Data      (40x25 color attributes)
  1000 Nybbles  Color RAM              (40x25 color attributes)

Standard Character Mode (MCM=0, ECM=0, BMM=0)
Normal Resolution 8x8 pixel character, two colors:
  0   BG color 0 (Port D021h)          (0-15)
  1   Color as selected by Nybble      (0-15)

Multi-Color Character Mode (MCM=1, ECM=0, BMM=0)
Nybble MSB=0 : Normal Resolution 8x8 pixel character, two colors:
  0   BG color 0 (Port D021h)          (0-15)
  1   Color as selected by Nybble LSBs (0-7)
Nybble MSB=1 : Low Resolution 4x8 pixel character, four colors:
  0   BG color 0 (Port D021h)          (0-15)
  1   BG color 1 (Port D022h)          (0-15)
  2   BG color 2 (Port D023h)          (0-15)
  3   Color as selected by Nybble LSBs (0-7)
XXX Prio

Extended Color Character Mode (MCM=0, ECM=1, BMM=0)
Normal Resolution 8x8 pixel character, two colors with custom BG color:
  0   BG Color 0-3 (Port D021h-D024h)  (0-15)
  1   Color as selected by Nybble      (0-15)
In this mode, only character 0-63 can be used (first 512 Bytes of Character RAM). The two MSBs of the Map Data are used to select one of the four BG colors.

Standard Bit Map Mode (MCM=0, BMM=1)
Normal Resolution 320x200 pixels, 40x25 tiles of 8x8 pixels of two colors:
  0   LSBs of video matrix entry       (0-15)
  1   MSBs of video matrix entry       (0-15)
In this mode, the Color RAM is not used.

Multi-Color Bit Map Mode (MCM=1, BMM=1)
Low Resolution 160x200 pixels, 40x25 tiles of 4x8 pixels of four colors:
  0   BG Color 0 (Port D021h)          (0-15)
  1   MSBs of video matrix entry       (0-15)
  2   LSBs of video matrix entry       (0-15)
  3   Video Matrix Color Nybble        (0-15)

-- Special BG Modes --

Reserved Modes (ECM=1, with BMM=1 and/or MCM=1)
In these modes, the picture appears to be always Black (regardless of any Background or Border color registers, and regardless of VRAM address 3FFFh).

Display Disable (DEN=0)
The DEN bit is checked in scanline 48, if it is been set in that line, at least for a few clock cycles, then screen matrix fetches will be enabled, otherwise matrix data will not be fetched (so the CPU will run without waitstates), and character data will be fetched from VRAM address 3FFFh.
Furthermore, the DEN bit is checked in scanline 51 in 25-row mode, and in scanlines 51 through 55 in 24-row mode, if it has been cleared in one or more of that scanline(s), then the whole picture will be drawn at border color, neither BG nor MOBs will be displayed.
Mid-frame changes to the DEN bit have no effect (until the next checks occur
in lines 48 and up).


 C64 VIC Sprite Display

Up to eight sprites (aka MOBs, Moveable Object Blocks) can be displayed on the screen.

Standard MOB (M#MC=0)
Normal Resolution, 24x21 pixels, one color:
  0   Transparent                       (-)
  1   Sprite Color (Port D027h-D02Eh)   (0-15)

Multi-Color MOB (M#MC=1)
Low Resolution, 12x21 pixels, three colors:
  0   Transparent                       (-)
  1   Sprite Multi Color 0 (Port D025h) (0-15)
  2   Sprite Color (Port D027h-D02Eh)   (0-15)
  3   Sprite Multi Color 1 (Port D026h) (0-15)

MOB Tiles
Each MOB Tile occupies 63 bytes of memory (first 3 bytes for the upper row, next 3 bytes for the next row, and so on). Tile data can be defined at any addresses in the 16K VRAM area in steps of 64 bytes (leaving one unused byte between each MOB tile). Theoretically allowing to define up to 256 MOB tiles, practically some of the memory will be required for BG Character Data and Video Matrix though.

MOB Tile Numbers
The eight bytes at the end of the Video Matrix area are used to specify the MOB Tile Numbers for each MOB. (Ie. the total size of the Video Matrix is 1024 Bytes, first 1000 bytes used for BG, followed by 16 unused bytes, followed by 8 MOB Tile Numbers at addresses 3F8h-3FFh in the matrix).
The 8bit tile numbers are directly addressing MOB Tiles in the 16K VRAM area, in steps of 64 bytes.
The MOB Tile Numbers are read from the video matrix at the end of every raster line.


 C64 VIC Character Sets

The C64 character sets (fonts) are relative complicated. The BIOS handles characters by using some kind of uppercase-only ASCII format. The actual hardware uses either one of two ROM fonts which are both not using normal ASCII format. Alternately, user defined fonts can be defined in RAM. The mapping of the native C64 characters is as such:
  CHR  ASCII CHARSET     ROM CHARSET 1     ROM CHARSET 2
  0Xh  \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\  @ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO  @abcdefghijklmno
  1Xh  \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\  PQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^\  pqrstuvwxyz[\]^\
  2Xh   !"#$%&'()*+,-./   !"#$%&'()*+,-./   !"#$%&'()*+,-./
  3Xh  0123456789:;<=>?  0123456789:;<=>?  0123456789:;<=>?
  4Xh  @ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO  \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\  \ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO
  5Xh  PQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^\  \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\  PQRSTUVWXYZ\\\\\
  6Xh  \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\  \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\  \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\
  7Xh  \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\  \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\  \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\
Backslashes (\) indicate special ROM graphic symbols, or non-printable 'ASCII' control codes. For both ROM character sets, 80h-FFh are color-inverted duplicates of 00h-7Fh.

ASCII Characters
The BIOS is processing strings in cutdown 6bit ASCII format; characters 20h-5Fh are 64 normal ASCII punctation marks, numbers, and upppercase-only letters (with exceptions 5Ch pounds symbol instead backslash, and 5Fh arrow left symbol instead underscore).

ROM Character Sets
The C64 includes a 4KBytes character set ROM, theoretically offering space for 512 different characters (practically it contains only 156 unique, not duplicated, and not inverted characters).
However, 256 characters can be displayed at once, so the ROM is split into two sets of 256 characters each. Now the video controller doesn't support invert attributes, so each of these sets is split into 128 normal characters (00h-7Fh), and 128 identical (but color-inverted) characters (80h-FFh).

C64 and VIC20 Character Sets
The C64 and VIC20 are using the same sets of characters and symbols. The C64 however is using a bold characters (to compensate the higher screen resolution). On VIC20, the horizontal-line characters 40h/43h are different, on C64 these chars contain identical bold-lines. And, on the C64, a pixel got changed in the two inverted "@" symbols.

ROM Character Set 1
Character set 1 contains 126 different characters (two are duplicated 20h=60h, and 40h=43h) which include the above mentioned 64 ASCII characters (ASCII 40h-5Fh moved to ROM 00h-1Fh though, software can easily translate this as "ASCII AND 3Fh"), and 62 graphic symbols.

ROM Character Set 2
This character set includes 29 new characters which cannot be found in set 1. 01h-1Ah are now lowercase. Uppercase characters moved to 41h-5Ah (by overwriting some graphic symbols), three 3 graphic symbols at 5Fh, 69h, 7Ah have changed. Additionally, 5Eh has been changed equal to E6h (ie. inverted 66h).

Japanese Kanji Character Set
Set 1 is same as English Set 1, except that the Pound symbol has been replaced by a Yen symbol. In Set 2, 00h-3Fh are same as Set 1 (uppercase (!) chars, numbers, punctation marks, and Yen symbol), 40h-7Fh contain Kanji characters and some line-drawing symbols. In both sets, 80h-FFh are inverted.

RAM Character Set
When defining characters in RAM, up to 256 different characters can be defined. (Using 80h-FFh for duplicated inverted characters is a 'feature' of the C64 character ROM, the actual display hardware allows to use 80h-FFh for whatever purpose.)

C64 Memory Addresses
ROM characters can be read out by the CPU at addresses D000h-DFFFh (requires to disable I/O area temporily which uses same addresses). However, the display controller uses different addresses to read out ROM character data:
  SET  CPU Address   VIC Addresses
  1    D000h-D7FFh   1000h-17FFh or 9000h-97FFh
  2    D800h-DFFFh   1800h-1FFFh or 9800h-9FFFh
RAM characters can be stored at any memory addresses (at increments of 800h), except, obviously not at 1000h-1FFFh or 9000h-9FFFh. Also, Character data must be in the same 16K bank as Video Matrix data.


 C64 VIC Rendering

Internal Registers used for Vertical Rendering
  YY_POS     3bit  internal counter (vertical position in current char row)
  PIC_ON     1bit  internal flag (picture output enable)
  BORDER     1bit
  CHAR_ADDR 10bit  internal screen matrix address (of current char row)
  ROW_BUF  40x12bit  internal buffer for 8bit tile numbers & 4bit colors
If DEN was set in line 48 then: At the begin of each of the scanlines 48..247: the lower 3bits of the raster value [D012h] and of control register 1 vertical scroll [D011h] are compared against each other, if they match, then PIC_ON will be set, YY_POS will be reset to zero, and 40 bytes will be copied from the screen matrix to ROW_BUF through normal 8bit databus (which halts the CPU for 40 cycles), simultaneous 40 color values are copied from color ram to ROW_BUF through separate 4bit color-databus (which doesn't cause additional waitstates).
If PIC_ON is set: 40 bytes of Tile data are fetched from [ROW_BUF]*8+YY_POS (this takes place during Phase ? and doesn't cause waitstates), and tile-row are displayed (unless BORDER is set), and, at the end of the scanline, YY_POS is incremented, if it overflows then PIC_ON will be reset, and CHAR_ADDR will be incremented by 40.
IF PIC_ON is cleared: Tile data is fetched from memory with all 14 address lines high (ie. from 3FFFh plus the VIC Base address in CIA #2 Data Port A). If BORDER is off, then color 0 of that tile data is displayed as background color as usually, but the character color (color ram) is always BLACK. Screen output with PIC_ON cleared may happen if a 25-row screen is vertically scrolled, or if software is repeatedly setting the vertical scroll value to a value different than the current raster value, or if the vertical border is opened, or if DEN was not set in line 48.
During vertical blank, CHAR_ADDR is reset to zero.



 C64 VIC Dimensions and Timings

The visible width and height of the screen border is about 3-4 characters, at the left, right, top, and bottom of the 40x25 character area, the exact size may depend on the TV set or monitor used.

  Item          NTSC            PAL
  Oscillator    14.318181 MHz   17.734472 MHz
  Divider       Osc/14          Osc/18
  System Clock  1.022727 MHz    0.985248 MHz
  Frame Rate    ca. 60Hz        ca. 50Hz
  Scanlines     263             312
  Clks/Line     65              63

More detailed...?
  NTSC: 6567R5 6A:         64 cycles/line x 262 lines.
  NTSC: 6567R8 and newer:  65 cycles/line x 263 lines.

CPU Waitstates
Each CPU clock cycle is split into one half cycle for Video DMA (Phase 1), and one half cycle for CPU access (Phase 2).
Most of the Video DMA takes place during Phase 1, without waitstates:
40 bytes BG character data per scanline, 8 bytes MOB tile numbers per scanline, and (for each enabled MOB in that line only) the middle byte of the MOB character data. Additionally, DRAM Refresh takes place during Phase 1.
However, some video DMA takes place during Phase 2, with waitstates:
40 bytes screen/matrix data in the first scanline of each of the 25 character rows (these scanlines are often referred to as "bad lines" as they leave less cycles to the CPU, simultaneously the 40 color nybbles are fetched through a separate 4bit data bus), and (for each enabled MOB in that line only) the 1st and 3rd byte of the MOB character data.
Notes: The wait signal is brought low a few cycles in advance, to notify the CPU that the bus is about to be used for DMA (the CPU is probably halted immediately on the notification in must cases? in some cases it may to execute some cycles, until the actual DMA takes place, and/or even some more cycles if an opcode-cycle doesn't require to use the bus?) typically a 40 bytes BG matrix access results in 3+40 waitstates, a 2 bytes MOB access results in 3+2 waitstates. For the MOB accesses, the three extra cycles may overlap with the cycles from the previous MOB (there are 3+2+2 waitstates if MOB 0 and 1 are used, and 3+2+3+2 if MOB 0 and 7 are used, respectively, the CPU runs faster with continuously arranged MOBs). MOB data is fetched even if the MOB isn't visible (positioned in the border area), for vertically magnified MOBs, data is fetched in all 42 lines (not only each 2nd line).

eventually the CPU may keep

allowing the CPU to
phase 2 accesses are


 C64 Sound Interface

MOS 6581 SOUND INTERFACE DEVICE (SID)

D400/D407/D40E - Voice 1/2/3 Frequency Control - Low-Byte
D401/D408/D40F - Voice 1/2/3 Frequency Control - High-Byte

D402/D409/D410 - Voice 1/2/3 Pulse Waveform Width - Low-Byte
D403/D40A/D411 - Voice 1/2/3 Pulse Waveform Width - High-Nybble
Defines a 12bit waveform pulse width (the four MSBs of the high-register are unused).

D404/D40B/D412 - Voice 1/2/3 Control Register
  Bit  Expl.
  7    Select Random Noise Waveform, 1 = On
  6    Select Pulse Waveform, 1 = On
  5    Select Sawtooth Waveform, 1 = On
  4    Select Triangle Waveform, 1 = On
  3    Test Bit: 1 = Disable Oscillator 1/1/1
        - That is "1/1/1" for all voicechannels ???
  2    Ring Modulate Osc. 1/2/3 with Osc. 3/1/2 Output, 1 = On
  1    Synchronize Osc. 1/2/3 with Osc. 3/1/2 Frequency, 1 = On
  0    Gate Bit: 1 = Start Att,Dec,Sus, 0 = Start Release

D405/D40C/D413 - Envelope Generator 1/2/3: Attack / Decay Cycle Control
  Bit  Expl.
  4-7  Select Attack Cycle Duration:  0-15
  0-3  Select Decay Cycle Duration:   0-15

D406/D40D/D414 - Envelope Generator 1/2/3: Sustain / Release Cycle Control
  Bit  Expl.
  4-7  Select Sustain Cycle Duration: 0-15
  0-3  Select Release Cycle Duration: 0-15

  ----- Control Registers -----

D415 - Filter Cutoff Frequency: Low-Nybble (Bits 2-0)
D416 - Filter Cutoff Frequency: High-Byte

D417 - Filter Resonance Control / Voice Input Control
  Bit  Expl.
  4-7  Select Filter Resonance: 0-15
  3    Filter External Input: 1 = Yes, 0 = No
  2    Filter Voice 3 Output: 1 = Yes, 0 = No
  1    Filter Voice 2 Output: 1 = Yes, 0 = No
  0    Filter Voice 1 Output: 1 = Yes, 0 = No

D418 - Select Filter Mode and Volume
  Bit  Expl.
  7    Cut-Off Voice 3 Output: 1 = Off, 0 = On
  6    Select Filter High-Pass Mode: 1 = On
  5    Select Filter Band-Pass Mode: 1 = On
  4    Select Filter Low-Pass Mode: 1 = On
  0-3  Select Output Volume: 0-15

D419 - Paddle Analog/Digital Converter X-Axis (0-255)
D41A - Paddle Analog/Digital Converter Y-Axis (0-255)
Before reading analog input, select paddle 1 or 2 (by writing to CIA#1 Data Port A) and perform a "ldy #$80; lop: nop; dey; bpl lop" delay.

D41B - Oscillator 3 Random Number Generator
D41C - Envelope Generator 3 Output


 C64 Complex Interface Adapters

DC00-DC0F MOS 6526 Complex Interface Adapter (CIA) #1
DD00-DD0F MOS 6526 Complex Interface Adapter (CIA) #2

C64 CIA #1 Data Ports (Keyboard, Joystick)
C64 CIA #2 Data Ports (Serial, VIC, User Port)
C64 CIA #1/#2 Timers, Interrupt, and Control Registers


 C64 CIA #1 Data Ports (Keyboard, Joystick)

DC00 - CIA #1 Data Port A (Keyboard, Joystick, Paddles)
  Bit  Dir. Expl.
  7-0  Out  Select Keyboard Column 7-0    (0=Select, 1=Not select)
  7-6  Out  Select Analog Paddle      (01b=Paddle 1, 10b=Paddle 2) ???
  5    -    Used for Keyboard only              (See above, Bit 7-0)
  4    In   Joystick 2 Fire                     (0=Pressed, 1=Released)
  3    In   Joystick 2 Right, Paddle 2 Y-Button (0=Moved/Pressed, 1=Released)
  2    In   Joystick 2 Left, Paddle 2 X-Button  (0=Moved/Pressed, 1=Released)
  1    In   Joystick 2 Down                     (0=Moved, 1=Released)
  0    In   Joystick 2 Up                       (0=Moved, 1=Released)
Analog paddle input can be read from Port D419h and D41Ah (SID).
Keyboard Matrix

DC01 - CIA #1 Data Port B (Keyboard, Joystick, Paddles, Lightpen)
  Bit  Dir. Expl.
  7-0  In   Keyboard Row 7-0 Input              (0=Pressed, 1=Released)
  7    Out  Timer B Toggle/Pulse Output         (Output from Timer B)
  6    Out  Timer A Toggle/Pulse Output         (Output from Timer A)
  5    In   Used for Keyboard only              (See above, Bit 7-0)
  4    In   Joystick 1 Fire (or Lightpen)       (0=Pressed, 1=Released)
  3    In   Joystick 1 Right, Paddle 1 Y-Button (0=Moved/Pressed, 1=Released)
  2    In   Joystick 1 Left, Paddle 1 X-Button  (0=Moved/Pressed, 1=Released)
  1    In   Joystick 1 Down                     (0=Moved, 1=Released)
  0    In   Joystick 1 Up                       (0=Moved, 1=Released)
Lightpen can be plugged to Game Port 1 only, the signal is wired to VIC and to CIA Port B, software can process lightpens through VIC Ports D013h/D014h.

Combined Keyboard and Joystick Use
The joystick ports cannot be disabled - use of joysticks will disturb keyboard input! Joystick 1 signals always produce garbage keystroke, Joystick 2 signals produce garbage only if keyboard keys are down simultaneously. Software that wishes to allow to switch between keyboard and joystick should use code as such:
  1) Read joysticks
  2) Read keyboard columns
  3) Read joysticks again
That procedure should be invoked once per "frame", any received keyboard signals in Step 2 should be ignored if joystick signals were received in Step 1 or 3. Ideally, to eliminate problems caused by switch bounce, keyboard signals should be also ignored if joystick signals were received in the previous or next frame (in case of next frame: requiring keyboard handling to be delayed by one frame).

Joystick 1 and 2
The C64 Programmers Reference Guide and C64 Schematics used some odd confusing declarations for the two joystick ports:
  1st Joystick = Joystick A = JOY B = CIA Port A (DC00h) = Port 2
  2nd Joystick = Joystick 1 = JOY A = CIA Port B (DC01h) = Port 1
In result, some programmers have choosen to use DC00h (requires stick plugged into Port 2), others to use DC01h (plugged into Port 1); making it necessary to re-connect the joystick to the desired socket about every time when loading a different game.
Any programs of better quality should work with both ports, regardless of the current connection. And of course such programs should also provide keyboard controls (preferably Q,A,O,P and Space) for users whom don't own a joystick at all.


 C64 CIA #2 Data Ports (Serial, VIC, User Port)

DD00 - CIA #2 Data Port A (Serial Bus, RS-232, VIC Memory Control)
  Bit  Dir. Expl.
  7         Serial Bus Data Input
  6         Serial Bus Clock Pulse Input
  5         Serial Bus Data Output
  4         Serial Bus Clock Pulse Output
  3         Serial Bus ATN Signal Output
  2         User / RS-232 Data Output / CNTR "/Strobe"
  1-0  Out  VIC Memory Bank XOR 3  (Default=3, see VIC Port D018h)

DD01 - CIA #2 Data Port B (User Port, RS-232)
  Bit  Dir. Expl.
  7    Out  Timer B Toggle/Pulse Output         (Output from Timer B)
  6    Out  Timer A Toggle/Pulse Output         (Output from Timer A)
  7         User / RS-232 Data Set Ready
  6         User / RS-232 Clear to Send
  5         User
  4         User / RS-232 Carrier Detect
  3         User / RS-232 Ring Indicator
  2         User / RS-232 Data Terminal Ready
  1         User / RS-232 Request to Send
  0         User / RS-232 Received Data

RS-232 Interface
Aside from its native Serial Bus interface, the C64 BIOS also supports RS-232 protocol, by using CIA#2 Data Port A Bit 2, CIA#2 Port B Bit 0-4, 6-7, and Interrupt Control Register Bit 4.
The signals are output/input by user port as TTL signals (0V/5V). A RS-232 adapter/cable would be thus required to convert the signals into +/-12V signals.

Parallel Centronics Printer Port
Original Commodore Printers are connected to the Serial Bus, most other printers are using parallel ports (some C64 software such like GEOS may support parallel printers).
Recommended connection for User port adapter would be CIA#2 Data Port A Bit 2 (/Strobe), CIA#2 Port B Bit 0-7 (Data), and Interrupt Control Register Bit 4 (Busy), and the adapter should drag the Auto-LF signal to ground.

Serial Bus
A printer and up to four disk drives can be connected to the serial bus. To access a specific device, the computer must enable the ATN signal, and then send the device number. The specified device should then communicate with the computer, and all other devices should ignore any data on the serial bus - until a new ATN signal is send to select a new device.
Device numbers can range from 00h to 1Fh. The following codes are used by the Commodore 64 to stand for the CBM devices listed below:
  00            Keyboard
  01            Datassette(TM)
  02            RS-232C device
  03            CRT display
  04            Serial bus printer
  08            Serial bus disk drive unit 1
  09            Serial bus disk drive unit 2
  0A            Serial bus disk drive unit 3
  0B            Serial bus disk drive unit 4
The KERNAL redirects device numbers 0-3 to internal hardware (as shown in the table), normally only device numbers 04h-1Fh are used for serial bus.
BUG: Device number 1Fh is used to deselect devices by UNTLK/UNLSN, it should never be used to select a device.


 C64 CIA #1/#2 Timers, Interrupt, and Control Registers

Below registers are mostly the same for CIA#1 and CIA#2, however, separate registers for each CIA exist, for example each is having 2 Timers, resulting in a total of 4 Timers.

DC02/DD02 - CIA #1/#2 Data Direction Register - Port A
DC03/DD03 - CIA #1/#2 Data Direction Register - Port B
  Bit  Expl.
  7-0  Data Direction for Port A/B Bits 7-0 each  (0=Input, 1=Output)
When Timer-Output-to-Port-B is enabled in control register below, Bit 6 and/or 7 of Port B are forcefully set to output state regardless of the direction specified in this register.
Note: Even when output direction is selected, the port still receives external LOW signals, reading from the data register does then return the external inputs ANDed with the local outputs (for example, Sorcery reads from DC00h while being configured as output).

DC04/DD04 - CIA #1/#2 Timer A: Low-Byte
DC05/DD05 - CIA #1/#2 Timer A: High-Byte
DC06/DD06 - CIA #1/#2 Timer B: Low-Byte
DC07/DD07 - CIA #1/#2 Timer B: High-Byte
Reading from this register returns the timers current counter value. Writing initializes the latched prescaler (reload) value. The 16bit prescaler is copied into the actual counter registers upon any of the following situations: 1) on timer underflow, 2) on "force load", 3) when writing to the timer-high-byte while the timer is stopped.

DC08/DD08 - CIA #1/#2 TOD 1/10 Seconds (00h-09h BCD)
DC09/DD09 - CIA #1/#2 TOD Seconds (00h-59h BCD)
DC0A/DD0A - CIA #1/#2 TOD Minutes (00h-59h BCD)
DC0B/DD0B - CIA #1/#2 TOD Hours (12h,01h-11h BCD) + AM/PM Flag (Bit 7)
        Is that eventually 00-11 or actually 12,01-11 Hours ???
The Time-of-Day Clock (TOD) can be operated by 50Hz or 60Hz input, in either case the clock input should be properly specified in Control Register A. The TOD input frequency is gained from the 9V AC power supply, which is itself gained from the wall socket (eg. US 110V/60Hz, or German 230V/50Hz), the frequency (and accuracy) are thus depending on the local energy provider.
When reading Hours, all TOD registers are latched (ie. frozen, but kept counting in background), until 1/10 Seconds is read.
When writing Hours, all TOD registers are completely stopped, until 1/10 Seconds is written.
When "Set Alarm" mode is selected in Control Register B, writing to TOD registers sets the Alarm-Time rather than the current Clock-Time. (Reading still returns the current time, Alarm is write-only).

DC0C/DD0C - CIA #1/#2 Synchronous Serial I/O Data Buffer
8bit shift register for serial input/output.

DC0D/DD0D - CIA #1/#2 CIA Interrupt Control Register (Read Flags/Write Mask)
  Bit  Expl.
  7    Any enabled interrupt (0=None, 1=Yes) / Set-Clear Flag (0=Clear, 1=Set)
  6-5  Not used                         (always read out as zero)
  4    FLAG External IRQ/NMI Input,
         CIA #1 - IRQ - Cassette Read, Serial Bus SRQ Input
         CIA #2 - NMI - User, RS-232 Received Data Input, CNTR Busy
  3    Serial Port Interrupt
  2    Time-of-Day Clock Alarm Interrupt
  1    Timer B Interrupt
  0    Timer A Interrupt
Reading from this register returns interrupt request flags, reading automatically clears all IRQ flags (including such that are disabled by interrupt mask), bit 7 indicates whether any enabled interrupts are present, ie. bit 7 is set if (IRQ_flags AND IRQ_enable)<>0.
Writing to this register may either set or reset interrupt mask enable bits, depending on the Set-Clear flag in bit 7 of the written value, any written "0" bits are kept unaffected, any written "1" bits are set to the value of bit 7.

DC0E/DD0E - CIA #1/#2 Control Register A
  Bit  Expl.
  7    Time-of-Day Clock Frequency      (0=9VAC/60Hz, 1=9VAC/50Hz)
  6    Serial Port I/O Mode Output      (0=Input, 1=Output)
  5    Timer A Counts                   (0=System 02 Clock, 1=CNT Signals)
  4    Timer A Force Load               (0=No, 1=Yes)
  3    Timer A Run Mode                 (0=Continuous, 1=One-Shot)
  2    Timer A Output-to-Port-B Mode    (0=Pulse, 1=Toggle)
  1    Timer A Output-to-Port-B Enable  (0=Disable, 1=Enable)
  0    Timer A Start/Stop               (0=Stop, 1=Start)

DC0F/DD0F - CIA #1/#2 Control Register B
  Bit  Expl.
  7    Time-of-Day Write Mode           (0=Set Clock, 1=Set Alarm)
  6-5  Timer B Mode Select:
         0 = Count System 02 Clock Pulses
         1 = Count Positive CNT Transitions
         2 = Count Timer A Underflow Pulses
         3 = Count Timer A Underflows While CNT Positive
  4-0  Same as for above Timer A, but for Timer B respectively.


 VIC20 Specs

VIC20
VIC20 Tech Data
VIC20 Memory and I/O Map
VIC20 Video and Audio
VIC20 Versatile Interface Adapters (VIA 1 and 2)
VIC20 Pinouts for Input/Output Devices

Other
CPU 65XX Microprocessor
KERNAL Functions


 VIC20 Tech Data

"PEEK and POKE commands are very effective especially in animation,
and for sophisticated programming such as bouncing a ball."
This fundamentel piece of information has been obtained from:
Programmers Reference Guide for VIC 20 Personal Computer, compiled from the experience of Commodore's international programming staffs in more than half a dozen countries.

VIC-20 Tech Details
  CPU: 6502A, 1.02 MHz (NTSC), 1.11 MHz (PAL)
  ROM: 16K Basic/Kernal ROM, 4K Character ROM (2 sets of 256 characters)
  RAM: 5K RAM (expandable to 40K RAM max), 1Kx4bit Color RAM
  Video: 22x23 tiles, 176x184 pix (1bit HiRes), or 88x184 pix (2bit MultiColor)
  Color: 16 Color Palettte, 2 or 4 Colors (Hires/Multi), 1 unique color/tile
  Sound: 3x Square Wave, 1x Noise, 1x Volume (shared for all 4 channels)
  Ports: One Joystick port, User Port, Expansion Port, Serial Port, Cassette
  Keyboard: Matrix with 8x8 Keys, plus Restore Key

VIC-1001
Japanese VIC20, NTSC based. Modified Kernal and Character ROMs for Kanji.

VC-20
European VIC20, PAL-based, called VC-20 (in germany at least). Changed Kernal matched to PAL timings.

VIC20CR
Cost Reduced (CR) revision with minor changes. Eight of the 1Kx4bit SRAMs have been replaced by two 2Kx8bit SRAMs. The Audio output is merged with a new external Audio input from Expansion Port. The Video signal is directly output to both Video pins (without any loop/capacitor on either pin).


 VIC20 Memory and I/O Map

VIC20 Memory Map
  Addr. Size Expl.
  0000h  1K  RAM (BIOS,KERNAL,STACK)
  0400h  3K  Expansion RAM
  1000h  4K  RAM (3.5K BASIC/USER, 0.5K Screen RAM)
  2000h 24K  Expansion RAM (or ROM)
  8000h  1K  Character ROM Uppercase and all Symbols (Normal)
  8400h  1K  Character ROM Uppercase and all Symbols (Reversed)
  8800h  1K  Character ROM Upper/lowercase and some Symbols (Normal)
  8C00h  1K  Character ROM Upper/lowercase and some Symbols (Reversed)
  9000h      I/O Area (VIC Chip, VIA1, VIA2)
  9400h      Color RAM (1024x4bit)
  9800h      Expansion I/O Area 2
  9C00h      Expansion I/O Area 3
  A000h  8K  Expansion ROM (or RAM)
  C000h  8K  BASIC ROM
  E000h  8K  KERNAL ROM

VIC20 RAM Expansions
The VIC has three memory expansion areas, one for 3K RAM, and one for 8K..24K RAM, and one for 8K ROM (or RAM). The built-in 4K RAM are located in the middle of the first two areas. The following rules apply to RAM:
  Basic RAM must be located in a continous memory block.
  Screen RAM must be located in built-in 4K RAM.
  Color RAM address bit9 must match Screen RAM address bit9.
Respectively, to provide as much Basic RAM as possible, the locations of Basic, Screen, and Color RAM change depending on installed RAM Expansions:
  Expansion  Total RAM  Basic RAM    Screen RAM   Color RAM    Basic Space
  None       5K         1000h-1DFFh  1E00h-1FFFh  9600h-97FFh  3.5K
  3K         8K         0400h-1DFFh  1E00h-1FFFh  9600h-97FFh  6.5K
  8K..35K    13K..40K   1200h-7FFFh  1000h-11FFh  9400h-95FFh  11.5K..27.5K
Notes: The 3K area isn't used by Basic when adding 8K RAM (or more). RAM in the third expansion area at A000h cannnot be used by Basic.

VIC20 ROM Expansion
Expansion ROM is automatically started if the first 9 bytes at A000h contain specific data:
  A000h-A001h Cold Start Vector (invoked after RESET with S=FFh, D=0, I=1)
  A002h-A003h Warm Start Vector
  A004h-A008h ASCII ID Code "A0CBM" with Bit7 set in the last 3 letters

VIC20 I/O Map
9000h-900Fh - VIC (Video, Sound, Lightpen, Paddles)
  9000h  Horizontal Screen Origin, and Interlace
  9001h  Vertical Screen Origin
  9002h  Horizontal Screen Size, and Screen Base
  9003h  Vertical Screen Size, Raster, and Character Size
  9004h  Raster Value
  9005h  Video Memory Base Addresses
  9006h  Lightpen Horizontal
  9007h  Lightpen Vertical
  9008h  Paddle X Position
  9009h  Paddle Y Position
  900Ah  Voice 1 Square/Bass
  900Bh  Voice 2 Square/Alto
  900Ch  Voice 3 Square/Soprano
  900Dh  Voice 4 Noise
  900Eh  Sound Volume, and Auxiliary Color
  900Fh  Screen Color, Border Color, and Reverse Mode
9110h-911Fh - VIA1 (NMI, Cas, Joy, Serial, User Port, Restore Key)
9120h-912Fh - VIA2 (IRQ, Cas, Joy, Serial, Keyboard, 60Hz Jiffy)
  91x0h  Input/Output Register B (IRB/ORB)
  91x1h  Input/Output Register A (IRA/ORA)
  91x2h  Data Direction Register B (DDRB)
  91x3h  Data Direction Register A (DDRA)
  91x4h  T1 Low-order Counter/Latch (T1C_L)
  91x5h  T1 High-order Counter/Latch (T1C_H)
  91x6h  T1 Low-order Latch (T1L_L)
  91x7h  T1 High-order Latch (T1L_H)
  91x8h  T2 Low-Order Latch/Counter (T2C_L)
  91x9h  T2 High-Order Counter (T2C_H)
  91xAh  Shift Register (SR)
  91xBh  Auxiliary Control Register (ACR)
  91xCh  Peripheral Control Register (PCR)
  91xDh  Interrupt Flag Register (IFR) (Request/Acknowledge)
  91xEh  Interrupt Enable Register (IER) (Enable/Disable)
  91xFh  Input/Output Register A' (IRA'/ORA')

VIC20 Mirrors
There are no memory mirrors, except in the I/O-0 area at 9000h-93FFh, the devices are selected as such: VIA1 by A4=1, VIA2 by A5=1, and [probably ?] VIC by A8=0. Most of the mirrors are selecting more than one device at once.

VIC20 Empty Memory Regions
The following regions are empty (unless used by expansion hardware):
RAM/ROM Expansion Areas, I/O Expansion Areas, Upper Nybbles in Color RAM, and locations in Internal I/O Area with A4=0, A5=0, A8=1.
The Data bus is shared for CPU and Video DMA (one half clock cycle each), so when the CPU reads from empty memory regions it will receive the value from the previous DMA transfer (a byte from Screen RAM or Character ROM/RAM during picture drawing, or garbage DMA fetches somewhere from 101Ch or 181Ch or else during blanking periods).

Basic/Kernal RAM in First Kilobyte
KERNAL First Kilobyte RAM (0000h-03FFh)


 VIC20 Video and Audio

Video Interface Chip (VIC) 6560 (NTSC) or 6561 (PAL)

The VIC20 supports only one video mode, which behaves similiar as the C64's "Multi-Color Character Mode" (MCM=1, ECM=0, BMM=0), with smaller resolution, with some color limitiations, and without moveable objects.

- Fully expandable system with a 16K byte address space
- Screen grid size up to 192 Horizontal by 200 vertical dots
- Up to 600 locations on TV

9000h Horizontal Screen Origin, and Interlace (NTSC=05h, PAL=0Ch)
  Bit7   Interlace mode   (0=Off/Normal, 1=On) (NTSC Only) (PAL: No Effect)
  Bit6-0 Left Border width (in FOUR pixel steps)
Interlace reduces the Frame Rate from 60Hz to 30Hz; intended to blend the VIC picture with a picture from another source.

9001h Vertical Screen Origin (NTSC=19h, PAL=26h)
  Bit0-7 Upper Border Height (in TWO pixel steps)

9002h Horizontal Screen Size, and Screen Base (96h) (16h for 8K Expansion)
  Bit7   Screen Base A9          (1 = +0200h) (see Port 9005h), and
         Color RAM Base A9       (0=9400h, 1=9600h)
  Bit6-0 Number of video columns (Default = 22 columns; 176 pixels)
The maximum column setting is 27 or 31 for NTSC, and 34 or 32 for PAL (?). Attempts to use bigger values are rejected (the maximum setting is used instead). The maximum settings might exceed the visible area of the TV Set?

9003h Vertical Screen Size, Raster, and Character Size (2Eh or AEh)
  Bit7   Bit 0 of Raster value (Bits 8-1 are in Port 9004h)
  Bit6-1 Number of video rows  (Default is 23 rows; 184 pixels)
  Bit0   Character size (0=Normal 8x8, 1=Large 8x16)
Note: The 8x16 mode allows to access twice as much Character RAM (4K at 1000h-1FFFh), respecticely Screen RAM occupies only half as much memory, and can be squeezed between CPU Stack and IRQ/NMI verctors (0.25K at 200h-2FFh).

9004h Raster Value (Current Scanline) (Read only)
  Bit7-0 Bits 8-1 of Raster value (Bit 0 is in Port 9004h)
The counter starts at 000h at the begin of the Upper Border area. The current scanline within the Picture area can be calculated as such:
  ([9004h]-[9001h]) * 2 + [9003h].Bit7

9005h Video Memory Base Addresses (F0h) (C0h for 8K Expansion)
Screen memory for 22x23 tiles of 8x8 pixels occupies a bit less than 200h bytes (0.5K), or about half as much for 8x16 tiles. Character memory for 256 tiles occupies 800h bytes (2K) (8x8 tiles), or 1000h (4K) bytes (8x16 tiles). The base is NOT required to be aligned to that numbers.
  Bit Expl.
  7   Screen Base A13    (0=ROM, 1=RAM) (Must be RAM, obviously)
  6   Screen Base A12    (1 = +1000h)
  5   Screen Base A11    (1 = +0800h)
  4   Screen Base A10    (1 = +0400h)
  -   Screen Base A9     (1 = +0200h) (A9 defined in Port 9002h)
  3   Character Base A13 (0=ROM, 1=RAM)
  2   Character Base A12 (1 = +1000h)
  1   Character Base A11 (1 = +0800h)
  0   Character Base A10 (1 = +0400h)
The VIC uses a 16K address space, the VIC VA13 address line equals the to inverted CPU CA15 address line. Table below shows which regions of the 16K area can (or cannot) be accessed by the VIC chip:
  CPU          VIC               Content
  0000h-03FFh  (see note)        1K Internal RAM
  0400h-0FFFh  No                3K Expansion RAM
  1000h-1FFFh  Characters/Screen 4K Internal RAM
  8000h-8FFFh  Characters        4K Character ROM
  9000h-9FFFh  No                4K I/O Area
The VIC can access the RAM at 0-3FFh, however, even when Kernal and Basic are not used, that region is shared with the CPU Zero Page area (000h-0FFh), CPU Stack (100h-1FFh), and IRQ/BRK/NMI Vectors (314h-319h).
Expansion RAM (even if installed) cannot be used because the Expansion Port outputs only the CPUs CA0-CA13 address signals (not the VA0-VA13 signals).

9006h - Light pen Horizontal (00h)
9007h - Light pen Vertical (00h)
  Bit7-0 Light pen position in pixels (00h=upper/left)
"When the scan passes the area where the pen is, a signal is sent to the VIC chip. When this signal is received, the VIC chip will record the exact location of the scan in two registers.
The light pen trigger is connected to pin 6 of the game port. The light pen trigger input can also be reached from pin 7 of the user port. Note that you can't use a joystick and a light pen at the same time, because the same line that is used as the light pen trigger input is used as the joystick fire button input (you would get false readings).
The VIC chip constantly keeps track of the scan position on the television in two registers. When the light pen trigger input is brought low, the VIC freezes the two registers. You can then read and use this information. After reading the two registers, the trigger line will be cleared, so that scan information can be placed again in the two registers."

9008h Paddle X Position (FFh)
9009h Paddle Y Position (FFh)
  Bit7-0 Paddle Input (0-FFh) (A/D converted variable resistance)
Note: Paddle Buttons can be read from VIA1/PortA Bit4, and VIA2/PortB Bit7.

900Ah Voice 1 Square - 3995Hz/NTSC, 4329Hz/PAL (00h) (Bass)
900Bh Voice 2 Square - 7990Hz/NTSC, 8659Hz/PAL (00h) (Alto)
900Ch Voice 3 Square - 15980Hz/NTSC, 17320Hz/PAL (00h) (Soprano)
900Dh Voice 4 Noise - 31960Hz/NTSC, 34640Hz/PAL (00h)
  Bit 7   Sound Enable    (0=Off, 1=On)
  Bit 6-0 Sound Frequency (0-127); F = Baseclock / (127-X)
Each Voice uses a different Baseclock (see above PAL/NTSC Voice values).
Not sure what happens on division by zero?

900Eh - Sound Volume and Auxiliary Color (00h)
  Bit 7-4  Auxiliary color (0-15) (Color 3 for Multi-Color tiles)
  Bit 3-0  Volume for all Sound channels (0=Off, 15=Loudest)

900Fh - Screen Color, Border Color, and Reverse Mode (1Bh)
  Bit 7-4 Background/Screen Color (0-15) (Color 0 of all tiles)
  Bit 3   Character Reverse Mode  (0=Inverted, 1=Normal)
  Bit 2-0 Border Color            (0-7) (also Color 1 of Multi-Color tiles)

9400h-97FFh - Color RAM (1024x4bit) (see Port 9002h for used area)
Allows to select Hi-Res or Multi-color mode for each tile, and to assign one custom color for each tile. The other tile color(s) are defined in I/O Ports, shared for all tiles.
  Bit7-4  Not used          (returns garbage when reading)
  Bit3    Resolution/Depth  (0=Hi-Res 8x8, 2 color, 1=Multi-Color 4x8, 4 color)
  Bit2-0  Character Color   (0-7) (Indepent color for each tile)
Note: Only 506 entries are used at default resolution of 22x23 characters, the remaining 518 entries can be used as general purpose 4bit RAM.

Hi-Res and Multi-Color Tile Colors
  Hi-Res   Multi-Color  Color Source
  Color 0  Color 0      Screen color (0-15)    (Port 900Fh, Bit4-7)
  -        Color 1      Border color (0-7)     (Port 900Fh, Bit0-2)
  Color 1  Color 2      Character color (0-7)  (Color RAM)
  -        Color 3      Auxiliary color (0-15) (Port 900Eh, Bit4-7)
Each byte in Character RAM defines one row of a tile. The color of leftmost pixel for each row is located in the most-significant bit(s).

VIC20 Color Code Table
Screen Color and Auxiliary Color can be in range 0-15.
Border Color and Charater Colors (Color RAM) can be only 0-7.
  0 Black               8 Orange
  1 White               9 Light Orange
  2 Red                10 Light Red (Pink)
  3 Cyan (Green+Blue)  11 Light Cyan
  4 Purple (Red+Blue)  12 Light Purple
  5 Green              13 Light Green
  6 Blue               14 Light Blue
  7 Yellow (Green+Red) 15 Light Yellow
Note: On the C64, some of the Light (pastelized) colors have been replaced.

C64 VIC Character Sets

VIC20 Video Timings
  Type          NTSC 60Hz       PAL 50Hz
  Oscillator    14.318181 MHz   17.734472 MHz
  Divider       Osc/14          Osc/16
  System Clock  1.022727 MHz    1.108405 MHz
  Visible       ???x???         ???x???
  Scanlines     261             312
  Clks/Line     65 clks         71 clks
  Clks/Char     2 clks          2 clks

Non-blocking Video DMA
The VIC performs two DMA operations for each character row: One read from Screen/Color RAM (via 12bit databus). And one read from Character RAM/ROM (via 8bit databus). The bus-frequency is twice the CPUs clock-frequency, there's one half cycle available to the CPU and DMA each, that allows video DMA to take place without halting the CPU.


 VIC20 Versatile Interface Adapters (VIA 1 and 2)

9110h-911Fh - 6522 VIA#1 (NMI, Cas, Joy, Serial, User Port, Restore Key)
9120h-912Fh - 6522 VIA#2 (IRQ, Cas, Joy, Serial, Keyboard, 60Hz Jiffy)
Versatile Interface Adapter 6522 (VIA)

VIA #1 Port B - 9110h=Data, 9112h=Direction (User Port)
  Bit  Pin(s)       Purpose/Example
  PB0  USR.C        RS232 Received data (Sin)          (0=Low)
  PB1  USR.D        RS232 Request to Send (RTS)        (0=Low)
  PB2  USR.E        RS232 Data terminal ready  (DTR)   (0=Low)
  PB3  USR.F        RS232 Ring indicator (RI)          (0=Low)
  PB4  USR.H        RS232 Received line signal (DCD)   (0=Low)
  PB5  USR.J        Not used with RS232                (0=Low)
  PB6  USR.K        RS232 Clear to send (CTS)          (0=Low)
  PB7  USR.L        RS232 Data set ready (DSR)         (0=Low)

VIA #1 Port A - 9111h/911Fh=Data, 9113h=Dir (User Port, Joy, Cas, Serial)
  Bit  Pin(s)       Purpose/Example
  PA0  SIO.4        Serial CLK IN                  (0=Low)
  PA1  SIO.5        Serial DATA IN                 (0=Low)
  PA2  JOY.1/USR.4  Joy S0 Up    ;JOY S0,S1,S2,S4 controlled by VIA #1 Port A
  PA3  JOY.2/USR.5  Joy S1 Down  ;JOY S3: see VIA #2 Port B
  PA4  JOY.3/USR.6  Joy S2 Left/Paddle Switch X    (0=Low)
  PA5  JOY.6/USR.7  Joy S4 Fire/Lightpen           (0=Low)
  PA6  CAS.6/USR.8  Cassette switch sense          (0=Low)
  PA7  SIO.3/USR.9  Serial ATN out                 (1=Low) (Inverted)

VIA #1 Timers, Shift, Auxiliary, Peripheral, Interrupts (Port 9114h-911Eh)
  Item Pin(s)       Purpose/Example
  T1                Timer 1
  T2                Timer 2
  SHFT              Shift register
  CA1  KEYB         Restore key                    (0=Low=Pressed)
  CA2  CAS.3        Cassette motor control         (?=On)
  CB1  USR.B        Interrupt signal for received RS-232 data
  CB2  USR.M        Transmitted RS-232 data
  /INT CPU.6/EXP.W  CPU Non Maskable Interrupt (and Expansion Port) (NMI)

VIA #2 Port B - 9120h=Data, 9122h=Direction (Keyboard, Cas, Joy)
  Bit   Pin(s)      Purpose/Example
  PB0-7 COL.0-7     Keyboard Column scan           (0=Low)
  PB3   COL.3/CAS.5 Cassette write line            (0=Low)
  PB7   COL.7/JOY.4 Joy S3 Right/Paddle Switch Y   (0=Low)
In Keyboard Matrix, VIC20 COLUMNS equal to C64 ROWS with Bit3,7 exchanged.
Keyboard Matrix

VIA #2 Port A - 9121h/912Fh=Data, 9123h=Direction (Keyboard)
  Bit   Pin(s)      Purpose/Example
  PA0-7 ROW.0-7     Keyboard Row scan              (0=Low)
In Keyboard Matrix, VIC20 ROWS equal to C64 COLUMNS with Bit0,7 exchanged.

VIA #2 Timers, Shift, Auxiliary, Peripheral, Interrupts (Port 9214h-921Eh)
  Item Pin(s)       Purpose/Example
  T1                Timer 1 (used for 60Hz Jiffy clock interrupt)
  T2                Timer 2
  SHFT              Shift register
  CA1  CAS.4        Cassette read line          (0=Low)
  CA2  SIO.4        Serial CLK OUT              (1=Low) (Inverted)
  CB1  SIO.1        Serial SRQ IN               (0=Low)
  CB2  SIO.5        Serial DATA OUT             (1=Low) (Inverted)
  /INT CPU.4/EXP.19 CPU Interrupt Request (and Expansion Port) (IRQ)


 VIC20 Pinouts for Input/Output Devices

VIC20 Joystick Port - Game I/O - 9pin DSUB
From left-to-right: Pin 1-5 in upper row, Pin 6-9 in lower row.
  Pin Control   Name  Purpose
  1   VIA1.PA2  JOY0  Up
  2   VIA1.PA3  JOY1  Down
  3   VIA1.PA4  JOY2  Left/Paddle Switch X
  4   VIA2.PB7  JOY3  Right/Paddle Switch Y
  5   VIC.POTY  POTY  Paddle Position Y
  6   VIA1.PA5  JOY4  Fire/Lightpen
  7   -         5V    +5V (max 100mA)
  8   -         GND   Ground
  9   VIC.POTX  POTX  Paddle Position X

VIC20 Audio/Video - 5pin DIN
Anti-clockwise, from upper-left to upper-right: Pin 3,5,2,4,1.
  1  +5V REG (max 10mA)
  2  GND
  3  AUDIO
  4  VIDEO LOW  (VIC20: via 3.9uH & capacitor, VIC20CR: shortcut with Pin 5)
  5  VIDEO HIGH (direct output without loop/capacitor, otherwise same as Pin 4)

VIC20 Serial I/O - 6pin DIN
Anti-clockwise, from upper-left to upper-right: Pin 5,4,3,2,1. Middle: Pin 6.
  1  SERIAL SRQ IN
  2  GND
  3  SERIAL ATN OUT
  4  SERIAL CLC IN/OUT
  5  SERIAL DATA IN/OUT
  6  /RESET (or N.C.)

VIC20 Cassette/Datasette Port - 12pin Edge (only 6 pins actually used)
From left-to-right: Pin 1-6 in upper row, short-cut with Pin A-F in lower row.
  A-1  GND
  B-2  +5V
  C-3  CASSETTE MOTOR  (VIA1.CA2) (+9V)
  D-4  CASSETTE READ   (VIA2.CA1)
  E-5  CASSETTE WRITE  (VIA2.PB3)
  F-6  CASSETTE SWITCH (VIA1.PA6)

VIC20 User I/O Port - 24pin Edge
From left-to-right: Pin 1-12 in upper row, Pin A-F,H,J-N in lower row.
  1 GND  Ground                    A GND Ground
  2 5V   +5VDC max 100mA           B CB1 RS232 Interrupt for Sin
  3 /RES /RESET                    C PB0 RS232 Received data (Sin)
  4 PA2  JOY0 Up                   D PB1 RS232 Request to Send (RTS)
  5 PA3  JOY1 Down                 E PB2 RS232 Data terminal ready  (DTR)
  6 PA4  JOY2 Left/Paddle Switch X F PB3 RS232 Ring indicator (RI)
  7 PA5  JOY4 Fire/Lightpen        H PB4 RS232 Received line signal (DCD)
  8 PA6  Cassette switch sense     J PB5 Not used with RS232
  9 PA7  SERIAL ATN OUT            K PB6 RS232 Clear to send (CTS)
  10 9V  9VAC Phase 1 max 100mA    L PB7 RS232 Data set ready (DSR)
  11 9V  9VAC Phase 2 max 100mA    M CB2 RS232 Transmitted data (Sout)
  12 GND Ground                    N GND Ground

VIC20 Expansion Port - 48 pin (24/24) female edge connector
From left-to-right: Pin 1-22 in upper row, Pin A-F,H,J-N,P,R-Z in lower row.
  Pin      Name    Description
  2-9      CD0-7   Data bus Bits 0-7
  B-S      CA0-13  Address bus Bits 0-13 (upper bits decoded in /IO,/RAM,/BLK)
  10-12    /BLK1-3 8K decoded RAM/ROM blocks 1,2,3 at 2000h,4000h,6000h
  13       /BLK5   8K decoded ROM block 5 at A000h
  14-16    /RAM1-3 1K decoded RAM blocks 1,2,3 at 0400h,0800h,0C00h
  T-U      /IO2-3  I/O blocks 2,3 (located at 9800h,9C00h) (eg. IEEE adapter)
  17       VR/W    Read/Write line from VIC chip (high-read, low-write)
  18       CR/W    Read/Write line from CPU chip (high-read, low-write)
  V        PHI2    Phase 2 system clock
  19       /IRQ    6502 Interrupt Request ("keyboard scan and system clock")
  W        /NMI    6502 Non Maskable Interrupt (WARMSTART, RUN/STOP-RESTORE)
  X        /RESET  6502 RESET pin
  21       +5V     Supply
  1,22,A,Z GND     System ground
  20       (NC)    Not connected
  Y        SNDIN   Not connected (VIC20), or Audio In (VIC20CR)
"Memory expansion will normally use the VR/W signal. Other devices may need the CR/W signal." -- Is that correct... or vice-versa ?

Power Supply Input
VIC20: 2pin; 9VAC
VIC20CR: 7pin; 9VAC and +5VDC (same as in C64)
Internally, all mainboards are running at raw 5VDC, the other voltages are used only to increase the room temperature, and for external hardware: Cassette Motor (9VDC), and User Port (9VAC).

VIC20 Pin Configuration 6560 - 40pin
  1     N.C.
  2     COMP COLOR
  3     SYNC & LUMINANCE
  4     R/W
  5-16  DB11-0
  17,18 POTX,POTY
  19    SOUND OUT
  20    GND
  21-34 A0-13 (Note: A13 is gained from /BLK4 signal)
  35,36 P01,P02 Clock Out, NTSC: X/14 = 1.02MHz, PAL: X/16 = 1.11MHz
  37    LPEN
  38,39 X02,X01 Clock In, NTSC: 14318181Hz, PAL:17734472Hz
  40    VCC 5VDC


 C16/PLUS4 Specs

C16/PLUS4 Tech Data
C16/PLUS4 Memory and I/O Map
C16/PLUS4 Keyboard, Joystick, Cassette, Serial, Sound, User Port
C16/PLUS4 Interrupts (Raster and Timers)
C16/PLUS4 Memory Control (CPU and Video)
C16/PLUS4 Video - Control
C16/PLUS4 Video - Cursor and Color
C16/PLUS4 Video - Rendering
C16/PLUS4 Video Modes
C16/PLUS4 Dimensions and Timings
C16/PLUS4 Pin-Outs

Other
Disk Drive
CPU 65XX Microprocessor
KERNAL Functions


 C16/PLUS4 Tech Data

C16
  CPU 7501/8501 - 6502 compatible with on-chip 7bit I/O Port
  16K DRAM (3FFEh bytes can be used) (shared as WRAM and VRAM)
  32K ROM (BASIC V3.5, separate KERNALs for PAL-B and NTSC-M)
  TED (Text Editing Device) for Video, Sound, Timers, Keyboard
  Four cursor keys (unfortunately arranged all in one row)

    Character graphics, high resolution graphics, Enhanced Colour Mode and
    reverse characters
    Multicolour graphics (4x8 character or graphics cells)
    Writable horizontal and vertical sync counters
    Horizontal raster position register
    Same chip for both NTSC-M and PAL-B
       1.NTSC:  14318181/16 Hz
         NTSC = 0.894886 MHz (single), or 1.789773 MHz (twice)
       2.PAL:   17734472/20 Hz
         PAL  = 0.886724 MHz (single), or 1.773447 MHz (twice)
    Double clock mode for faster operation


C116
Same as C16, slightly re-arranged mainboard. Equipped with a cheaper short-way flat keyboard, without shift-lock key, however it's having the four cursor keys re-arranged in compass directions.

Plus/4
Expanded C16, with 64K DRAM (about 61K can be used), additional 32K on-board Function ROM (3-plus-1 word processor), User Port with RS232 interface and 8bit parallel port, changed connection for Cassette Sense. Lacks 5VDC outputs on Serial and Audio/Video Ports. Different Power supply input (9VAC and 5VDC).


 C16/PLUS4 Memory and I/O Map

C16 and Plus/4 Memory Map
  0000h-0001h   I/O CPU 7501/8501 On-chip I/O Port
  0002h-7FFFh   RAM
  8000h-BFFFh   RAM or LO ROM (Basic, Function LO, Cart 1 LO, Cart 2 LO)
  C000h-FBFFh   RAM or HI ROM (Kernal, Function HI, Cart 1 HI, Cart 2 HI)
  FC00h-FCFFh   RAM or HI ROM (Kernal)
  FD00h-FF3Fh   I/O Area
  FF40h-FFFFh   RAM or HI ROM (Kernal, Function HI, Cart 1 HI, Cart 2 HI)
The C16 and C116 contain only 16K built-in RAM which is mirrored across the whole 64K address space (the mirrors cannot be disabled, so expansion RAM cannot be installed), the full 16K can be accessed at 0002h-4001h (that includes mirrors of the two hidden bytes at 0000h-0001h).
Further RAM at 4000h-FFFFh built-in in Plus/4 only.

Character Set in Kernal ROM
  D000h-D7FFh  256 non-inverted tiles

Kernal FC00h-FCFFh (Banking Routines)
  FCF1h-FCF3h  Jump to interrupt routine for cartridge
  FCF4h-FCF6h  Jump to cartridge reenable routine
  FCF7h-FCF9h  Jump to long fetch routine
  FCFAh-FCFCh  Jump to long jump routine
  FCFDh-FCFFh  Jump to long interrupt routine
Memory at FC00h-FCFFh is always Kernal ROM (or RAM), Function ROM or Cartridge ROM is disabled in this region.

I/O Map
7501/8501 CPU On-chip I/O Registers
  0000h - CPU 7501/8501 On-Chip I/O Port Direction
  0001h - CPU 7501/8501 On-Chip I/O Port Data (Cassette, Serial, User Port)
7700 Decoded I/O Addresses
  FD00h-FD0Fh - User Port RS232 Controller 6551A (Plus/4 Only - Not C16/C116)
  FD10h-FD1Fh - Cassette Sense / User Port 8bit Parallel I/O
  FD30h-FD3Fh - 6529B Keyboard Column Output Latch
  FDD0h-FDDFh - ROM Bank Latch
7360/8360 TED I/O Registers
  FF00h - Timer 1 Counter/Reload LSB
  FF01h - Timer 1 Counter/Reload MSB
  FF02h - Timer 2 Counter LSB
  FF03h - Timer 2 Counter MSB
  FF04h - Timer 3 Counter LSB
  FF05h - Timer 3 Counter MSB
  FF06h - Video Control Register 1
  FF07h - Video Control Register 2
  FF08h - Keyboard / Joystick Latch
  FF09h - Interrupt request register
  FF0Ah - Interrupt mask register
  FF0Bh - Raster interrupt register
  FF0Ch - Hardware-cursor position MSB (2bit) (Bit7-2 unused)
  FF0Dh - Hardware-cursor position LSB (8bit)
  FF0Eh - Sound 1 Frequency LSB (8bit)
  FF0Fh - Sound 2 Frequency LSB (8bit)
  FF10h - Sound 1 (or 2 ?) Frequency MSB (2bit) (Bit7-2 unused)
  FF11h - Sound control register
  FF12h - Bitmap/Character Memory Control and Sound 2 Frequency MSB
  FF13h - System Clock and Character Memory Control
  FF14h - Screen/Color Memory Control
  FF15h - Background Color 0
  FF16h - Background Color 1
  FF17h - Background Color 2
  FF18h - Background Color 3
  FF19h - Border Color
  FF1Ah - Current Character Position MSB (2bit) (Bit7-2 unused)
  FF1Bh - Current Character Position LSB (8bit)
  FF1Ch - Current Scanline MSB (1bit) (Bit7-1 unused)
  FF1Dh - Current Scanline LSB (8bit)
  FF1Eh - Actual position of horizontal scanning. R/W!.
  FF1Fh - Flashing Counter and Character Scanline Index
7360/8360 TED Strobe Outputs
  FF3Eh - CPU/Screen/Color ROM Enable
  FF3Fh - CPU/Screen/Color RAM Enable

FD20h-FD2Fh, FD40h-FDCFh, FDE0h-FEFFh, FF20h-FF3Dh
Unused portions of the I/O Area. Known fragments are: FD20h-FD2Fh accessed by the kernal power-up routines, but nothing inside the PLUS/4 or C16 is at this address. FDE0h-FEFFh for Disk DMA. FF20h-FF3Dh contains RAM/HI-ROM.

Expansion ROM Header
  8000h-8002h  Entrypoint (started by JSR 8000h)
  8003h-8005h  Another Entrypoint, not used by BIOS (?)
  8006h        Desired Entry Time (00h=Never, 01h=Immediately, 02h..FFh=Later)
  8007h-8009h  ASCII ID "CBM"


 C16/PLUS4 Keyboard, Joystick, Cassette, Serial, Sound, User Port

FD30h-FD3Fh - 6529B Keyboard Column Output Latch
The lower 4 address bits are don't care, normally FD30h is used.
  7-0  Keyboard Column 7-0 Selection     (0=Select, 1=Deselect)
The 6529B chips appears to be bi-directional, so reading from this port does (probably?) usually receive the state of the outputs, however, if two keys are pressed in the same row, then one column output may appear on two column inputs.

FF08h - Keyboard/Joystick Strobe (W) and Row Input Latch (R)
Write: Output unlatched Joystick column & strobe keyboard/joystick row latch.
  7-3  Not used
  2    Joystick 1         (0=Select, 1=Deselect)
  1    Joystick 2         (0=Select, 1=Deselect)
  0    Not used
Read: Latched keyboard/joystick row input (latched at time of above write)
  7-0  State of Row 7-0 for any selected columns (0=Pressed, 1=Released)
  7    Joystick 2 Fire    (0=Pressed, 1=Released)
  6    Joystick 1 Fire    (0=Pressed, 1=Released)
  3    Joystick 1/2 Right (0=Moved, 1=Released)
  2    Joystick 1/2 Left  (0=Moved, 1=Released)
  1    Joystick 1/2 Down  (0=Moved, 1=Released)
  0    Joystick 1/2 Up    (0=Moved, 1=Released)
Flowchart: Output latched keyboard column to FD30h, then output unlatched joystick column to FF08h, then read latched row input from FF08h.
The Keyboard Matrix is almost same as on C64, a couple of keys have been reassigned, mainly because the C16 has four (instead two) cursor keys.
Keyboard Matrix

0000h - CPU 7501/8501 On-Chip I/O Port Direction
Selects Data Direction for Register 0001h. Should be always ??h.

0001h - CPU 7501/8501 On-Chip I/O Port Data (Cassette, Serial, User Port)
  Bit Dir Expl.
  7   In  Serial Data In (and PLUS/4: Cas Sense) (0=Low, 1=High)
  6   In  Serial Clock In                        (0=Low, 1=High)
  5   -   Not used (no pin-out on 7501/8501)     (N/A)
  4   In  Cassette Read                          (0=Low, 1=High)
  3   Out Cassette Motor                         (0=9VDC, 1=Off) (Inverted)
  2   Out Serial ATN Out (and PLUS/4: User Port) (0=High, 1=Low) (Inverted)
  1   Out Serial Clock Out, Cassette Write       (0=High, 1=Low) (Inverted)
  0   Out Serial Data Out                        (0=High, 1=Low) (Inverted)
Switch Serial Clock/Data Outputs HIGH before reading Clock/Data Inputs.

FD10h-FD1Fh - Cassette Sense / User Port 8bit Parallel I/O
  7-0 User Port 6529B, 8bit Parallel I/O   (PLUS/4 Only)
  2   Cassette Sense In                    (C16 and C116 Only)
Note: On the PLUS/4, the Cassette Sense signal has moved to Port 0001h/Bit7, exchanging the J8,J9 jumpers switches the Plus/4 to C16 compatible mode.

FD00h-FD0Fh - User Port RS232 Controller 6551A (Plus/4 Only - Not C16/C116)
The Plus/4 contains a built-in ACIA 6551A RS232 Controller (unlike C64 and VIC20 which require external controller). To use RS232, one still requires a User Port to DSUB adapter; with TTL to RS232 voltage conversion. The downside is that the FD00h-FD0Fh cannot control the associated User Port pins directly as general purpose parallel I/O pins.

FF0Eh - Sound 1 Frequency LSB (8bit)
FF0Fh - Sound 2 Frequency LSB (8bit)
FF10h - Sound 1 (or 2 ?) Frequency MSB (2bit) (Bit7-2 unused)
FF12h - Sound 2 (or 1 ?) Frequency MSB (2bit) (Bit7-2 see Memory Control)
The soundregister-value can be calculated as
  reg=1024-(111860.781/frq[Hz]) (NTSC)
  reg=1024-(111840.45 /frq[Hz]) (PAL)

FF11h - Sound control register
  Bit7    D/A mode. See below for more.
  Bit6    Sound #2 noise on/off. If You set both, the square will sound.
  Bit5    Sound #2 squarewave on/off.
  Bit4    Sound #1 squarewave on/off.
  Bit0-3  Volume. Maximum value is 8. //OR:// 0=Off, F=Highest
To play samples, the TED can switch the sound generators to constant level
outputs. D/A is then done by changing the volume register setting. Each
generator can generate frequencies from 100Hz to 23kHz.


 C16/PLUS4 Interrupts (Raster and Timers)

/IRQ Sources: Raster, and 3 Timers
/NMI Sources: None (the 7501/8501 CPU doesn't have a /NMI input)
/RES Sources: Power up, and Reset Button

FF09h - Interrupt request register
  Bit7  Set on Any-Enabled-IRQ Condition  (0=None, 1=IRQ)
  Bit6  Timer 3 Interrupt Request         (0=None, 1=IRQ / Acknowledge)
  Bit5  Unused
  Bit4  Timer 2 Interrupt Request         (0=None, 1=IRQ / Acknowledge)
  Bit3  Timer 1 Interrupt Request         (0=None, 1=IRQ / Acknowledge)
  Bit2  Lightpen Interrupt Request        (Not implemented?)
  Bit1  Raster Interrupt Request          (0=None, 1=IRQ / Acknowledge)
  Bit0  Unused
Reading returns the (latched) interrupt flags. Writing "1" into Bit(s) 6,4-1 acknowledges (clears) the respective interrupt flag(s).

FF0Ah - Interrupt mask register
  Bit7  Unused
  Bit6  Timer 3 Interrupt        (0=Disable, 1=Enable)
  Bit5  Unused
  Bit4  Timer 2 Interrupt        (0=Disable, 1=Enable)
  Bit3  Timer 1 Interrupt        (0=Disable, 1=Enable)
  Bit2  Lightpen Interrupt       (Not implemented?)
  Bit1  Raster Interrupt         (0=Disable, 1=Enable)
  Bit0  High bit of Raster FF0Bh (see there)

FF0Bh - Raster interrupt register
Lower 8bit of the Raster Interrupt value (the upper bit is in Port FF0Ah), a Raster interrupt is requested when this value matches the current scanline number.
On the C16, picture rendering starts at line 000h, however, in 25-row mode, the first 3 scanlines are masked (in 24-row mode, first 7 lines are masked).
There are also several registers to read (and modify) the current scanline number, as well as other horizontal/vertical position registers, see Rendering chapter.

FF00h - Timer 1 Counter/Reload LSB
FF01h - Timer 1 Counter/Reload MSB
FF02h - Timer 2 Counter LSB
FF03h - Timer 2 Counter MSB
FF04h - Timer 3 Counter LSB
FF05h - Timer 3 Counter MSB
All counters are decremented at single clock speed (NTSC=0.894886MHz, PAL=0.886724MHz). Interrupts are requested on underflow, and Timer 1 is restarted at the written (reload) value, Timer 2 and 3 are restarted at FFFFh.
No idea if the timers are temporarily stopped/frozen when writing/reading to LSB registers, and re-activated on MSB register access?

Reset on Power up / Reset Button
Resets the CPU (program counter), the ROM Bank Latch (to Basic/Kernal), the Plus/4's RS232 controller, and whatever external hardware which is connected to the /Reset signal.
The RAM isn't cleared on reset. And the TED doesn't seem to have a Reset input - so either RAM or ROM may be enabled - even on power-up!?! Maybe the TED triggers reads from the Reset vector to enable ROM...?
The key-combination RESET+STOP enters the built-in machine language monitor, very nice idea, but taking into account that RESET destroys the current program counter setting, this is by far the worst debugging solution that I could think off.


 C16/PLUS4 Memory Control (CPU and Video)

FF12h - Bitmap/Character Memory Control and Sound 2 Frequency MSB
  Bit7-6  Unused
  Bit5-3  Bitmap Base Address      (in 8K steps) (ROM/RAM see FF12h.Bit2)
  Bit2    Character/Bitmap ROM/RAM (0=RAM, 1=ROM) (Address see FF13h.Bit7-2)
  Bit1-0  Sound 2 Frequency MSB    (see Sound chapter)

FF13h - System Clock and Character Memory Control
  Bit7-2  Character Base Address (in 1K steps) (ROM/RAM see FF12h.Bit2)
  Bit1    Force single clock mode
  Bit0-??-Memory State READ ONLY (0=RAM, 1=ROM) (change via FF3Eh/FF3Fh)
  Bit0-??-Status of Clock

FF14h - Screen/Color Memory Control
  Bit7-3  Video-ram Base Address (in 2K steps) (ROM/RAM see FF3Eh/FF3Fh)
  Bit2-0  Unused
Used for both Color and Screen memory: 1K Color memory, followed by 1K Screen (Matrix) memory.

FF3Eh - CPU/Screen/Color ROM Enable
FF3Fh - CPU/Screen/Color RAM Enable
Not sure if this actually affects Screen/Color, probably that is always RAM ?
Write any value to these addresses to select ROM/RAM at 8000h-FFFFh.
All ROM is write-through, the CPU can write to underlaying RAM, even if ROM is enabled.
See FF13h.0, and FF14h, and FDD0h-FDDFh.
  Port       Write       Read RAM   Read ROM
  FF3E       ROM SELECT  ?          HI ROM
  FF3F       RAM SELECT  ?          HI ROM

FDD0h-FDDFh - ROM Bank Latch
The written data value (D0-D7) is ignored, instead the lower 4 address bits are decoded. As such, this port is write only.
  A3-A2  HI-ROM C000h-FFFFh Select (0=Kernal, 1=FuncHI, 2=Cart1Hi, 3=Cart2Hi)
  A1-A0  LO-ROM 8000h-BFFFh Select (0=Basic, 1=FuncLO, 2=Cart1LO, 3=Cart2LO)
On-board Function ROM included on Plus/4 only (not C16 and C116).
Memory at FC00h-FCFFh is always Kernal ROM (or RAM).
The region at FD00h-FD3Fh is used for I/O.
For ROM/RAM selection see FF12h.Bit2 (Character/Bitmap), and FF3Eh/FF3Fh (CPU/Screen/Color).


 C16/PLUS4 Video - Control

FF06h - Video Control Register 1
  Bit7    TEST Internal TED Test    (Should be always 0)
  Bit6    ECM  Enhanced color mode  (0=Normal, 1=Extended)
  Bit5    BMM  Bitmap mode          (0=Text, 1=Bitmap)
  Bit4    DEN  Display Enable       (0=Blank/Border Color, 1=Display Enable)
  Bit3    RSEL 24/25 rows screen    (0=24 Rows, 1=25 Rows)
  Bit2-0  Y2-0 Vertical smooth-scrolling

FF07h - Video Control Register 2
  Bit7         Reverse Mode  (0=Reverse/128 Chars, 1=No Reverse/256 Chars)
               If 0, higmost char-bit tells if char should appear in inverse.
  Bit6    NTSC Select Video Format  (0=PAL, 1=NTSC) (Don't change!)
  Bit5    RES  TED stop. If set, the TED stops it's counters and
               screen-generating, only single clock and refresh
               cycles remain.  PROJECT 64: Flashing (0=Yes, 1=No)
  Bit4    MCM  Multicolor mode      (0=Normal, 1=Multicolor)
  Bit3    CSEL 40/38 columns screen (0=38 Columns, 1=40 Columns)
  Bit2-0  X2-0 Horizontal smooth-scrolling


 C16/PLUS4 Video - Cursor and Color

FF0Ch - Hardware-cursor position MSB (2bit) (Bit7-2 unused)
FF0Dh - Hardware-cursor position LSB (8bit)
Beyond 1000 the cursor is not seeable.
The shape/size/height and appearance (maybe different color, blinking, and/or inversion) of the cursor are unknown?

FF15h - Background Color 0
FF16h - Background Color 1
FF17h - Background Color 2
FF18h - Background Color 3
FF19h - Border Color
  Bit7    Not used
  Bit6-4  Luminance (Not used for Color Black)
  Bit3-0  Color

The Color codes are unknown? Probably different as on C64, as luminance has moved to separate bitfield.
The luminance setting is ignored for Color Black.
There are 121 different color/luminance combinations.

Base colours
  0 ------ Black      8 RRG--- Orange
  1 R-G-B- White      9 R-g--- Brown
  2 RR---- Red       10 R-GG-- Yellow-Green
  3 --GGBB Cyan      11 RR--B- Pink
  4 RR--BB Purple    12 --G-BB Blue-Green
  5 --GG-- Green     13 R---BB Light Blue
  6 ----BB Blue      14 --g-B- Dark Blue
  7 RRGG-- Yellow    15 GG--B- Light Green
Color names taken from the Plus/4 users manual. The RGB values are raw guesswork - assuming 30 degree steps on a 360 degrees color wheel, Color 9 assumed to be low-intensity color 8, and color 12 and 14 to be opposites of 8 and 9 - no idea if real C16s work like that?


 C16/PLUS4 Video - Rendering

Below registers are used internally during rendering. Programs normally do need to use or initialize that registers. However, reading or modifying them may be useful for synchronization and effects.

FF1Ah - Current Character Position MSB (2bit) (Bit7-2 unused)
FF1Bh - Current Character Position LSB (8bit)
Actual character-position. TED counts the characters that it had fetched and put out to the screen. The number is increasing by 40 after every characterline (8 rasterlines).

FF1Ch - Current Scanline MSB (1bit) (Bit7-1 unused)
FF1Dh - Current Scanline LSB (8bit)
Actual position of vertical scanning. Read/Writeable!
There's also a Raster Interrupt register, see Interrupt chapter.
On the C16, picture rendering starts at line 000h, however, in 25-row mode, the first 3 scanlines are masked (in 24-row mode, first 7 lines are masked).

FF1Eh - Actual position of horizontal scanning. R/W!.
Lowmost bit is unused. It contains the TED's internal counter's highmost 8 bits. So, it increases 4 with every character. When writing, it seems to put the value to a functionally different register (writing back a reading value in right time affects the screen).

FF1Fh - Flashing Counter and Character Scanline Index
  Bit7    Unused
  Bit6-3  Flashing counter. It's value increases with every
             frame, and TED fits it's flashing feature to this
             register's reaching to 15.
  Bit2-0  Actual vertical scanning-line in a character-row (R/W!)


 C16/PLUS4 Video Modes

Video Information
Abilities mostly parallel those of the uniquitous VIC-II video IC in the C64.
TED does not contain sprite support. The TED can display 121 different colors. Other features include a hardware cursor, hardware text blinking, and hardware inverse character support.

Character/Text modes 40x25 characters (BMM=0):
  1K color memory (1st 400h bytes of Color/Screen memory)
      bit7   Flashing   (Hires Text Mode only)
      bit6-4 Luminance  (Not used for Color Black)
      bit3   Multicolor (Multicolor Text Mode only)
      bit3-0 Color      (Only Bit2-0 in Multicolor Text Mode)
  1K screen memory (2nd 400h bytes of Color/Screen memory)
      bit7   Inversion         (Hires Text Mode, with FF07h/Bit7=0 only)
      bit7-6 Extended BG Color (Extended Text Mode only)
      bit7-0 Tile number 0-255 (max 127 or 63 for Inversion / Extended BG)
  2K character memory (800h bytes) (for 256 tiles)
High-Resolution Characters, fixed BG color
  0  Background color 0 (Port FF15h)
  1  Color Memory (with Flashing Bit in Bit7)
Extended Color Characters, 64 Tiles, selectable 4 BG Colors (ECM=1)
  0  Background color 0-3 (Port FF15h-FF18h) select by upper 2bit of tileno
  1  Color Memory (Bit7 probably unused?)
Multicolor Characters (MCM=1) with 0-1 colors (Hires) or 0-3 (Multicolor):
  0  0  Background color 0 (Port FF15h)
  -  1  Background color 1 (Port FF16h)
  -  2  Background color 2 (Port FF17h)
  1  3  Color Memory (Bit3 selects Hires (0) or Color (1) tile-mode)
        (Multicolor mode uses only 6 bits for color/luminance)
        (Bit7 in Color Memory probably unused?)

Bitmap modes (BMM=1):
  1K intensity memory (1st 400h bytes of Color/Screen memory)
      bit7   Not used
      bit6-4 Luminance MSB  (Not used for Color Black)
      bit3   Not used
      bit2-0 Luminance LSB  (Not used for Color Black)
  1K color memory (2nd 400h bytes of Color/Screen memory)
      bit7-4 Color MSB
      bit3-0 Color LSB
  8K bitmap (2000h bytes) (consisting of 40x25 tiles)
In 320x200 Hires bitmap mode (MCM=0), colors are:
  0  Color LSB with Luminance MSB
  1  Color MSB with Luminance LSB
In 160x200 Multicolor bitmap mode (MCM=1), colors are:
  0  Background color 0 (Port FF15h)
  1  Color LSB with Luminance MSB
  2  Color MSB with Luminance LSB
  3  Background color 1 (Port FF16h)


 C16/PLUS4 Dimensions and Timings

  Item          NTSC            PAL
  Oscillator    14.318181 MHz   17.734472 MHz
  Divider       Osc/16          Osc/20
  Single Clock  0.894886 MHz    0.886724 MHz
  Twice Clock   1.789773 MHz    1.773447 MHz
  Frame Rate    60Hz            50Hz
  Scanlines     262             312
  Clks/Line     57 single clks  57 single clks

    Dot clock = 8 times processor clock
    Two blocked DMA fetches per character line
    Writable horizontal and vertical sync counters
    Horizontal raster position register

CPU Clock
The TED also generates the clock signal for the 7501/8501 microprocessor. The clock is not constant, as it switches from from 885 kHz and twice that speed, 1.773 Mhz. The speed depends on TED's current task. It generates the slower clock signal when refreshing DRAM or fetching data for the video screen. Otherwise, the high clock signal is generated.
The user can disable fast clock generation via a register. The end result is a machine that operates at approximately 1 MHz, as the CPU runs in slow mode while the screen is displayed, and operates in fast mode when the TED starts drawing the top and bottom borders.

PAL/NTSC
The TED chip can be configured to PAL or NTSC signals in Video Control Register 2, there is no way to detect a PAL or NTSC mainboard, so the initialization is handled by separate PAL and NTSC BIOS versions.
Attempts to change the setting will result in faulty color output, changed oscillator divider (resulting in overclocked/underclocked hardware), and changed number of scanlines (this will NOT toggle between 50Hz/60Hz mode, due to the different oscillator).

Raster
For the serious video programmer, raster interrupts are implemented as on the VIC-II. However, the 0 line of the register corresponds to the first line of the character screen area, not the top of the border. In addition, the current raster line can be read from TED registers. You can modify the counter as well. Doing so will most likely affect the screen display. As a bonus, the horizontal location of the raster can be read and modified in the same way.


 C16/PLUS4 Pin-Outs

C16/PLUS4 Serial - Female 6pin DIN
  1 C16/C116: 5VDC via 330 Ohm - PLUS/4: N.C.
  2 GND
  3 ATN OUT
  4 CLK IN/OUT
  5 DATA IN/OUT
  6 /RESET OUT
Note: In other CBM computers, Pin 1 is used as SRQ IN, the C16/PLUS4 doesn't have this.

C16/PLUS4 Joystick Ports - 2 x Female 8pin Mini DIN
Not sure if one of the inputs can be used to connect a Lightpen?
  1 JOY0  Up    (TED K0 Input)
  2 JOY1  Down  (TED K1 Input)
  3 JOY2  Left  (TED K2 Input)
  4 JOY3  Right (TED K3 Input)
  5 5VDC
  6 BINA  Fire  (TED K6 or K7 Input)
  7 GND
  8 SELECT      (Amplified CPU databus D1 or D2 signal)
Whereas, Commodores typical confusing assignments for two joysticks are:
  SELECT  C16   C116       PLUS/4  BINA  BASIC
  D1=LOW  JOY2  JOY1/JOYB  JOY1    K7    JOY(2)
  D2=LOW  JOY1  JOY0/JOYA  JOY0    K6    JOY(1)
For normal 9pin DSUB joysticks, connect directions and buttons accordingly, and connect the Mini DIN's SELECT signal to DSUB's GND pin. Leave all other pins unconnected.

Cassette - Female 7pin Mini-DIN
  1 GND
  2 5VDC
  3 MOTOR (9VDC)
  4 CAS RD
  5 CAS WRT
  6 SENSE
  7 GND

Audio/Video - Female 8pin DIN
  1 LUM
  2 GND
  3 AUDIO OUT
  4 COMP
  5 EXT AUDIO IN
  6 COLOR
  7 N.C.
  8 C16/C116: 5VDC - PLUS4: N.C.

Expansion Port - 50pin Female Edge
  Y-F       A0-A15
  21-14     D0-D7
  4,5,C     /IRQ, R/W, /RESET
  B,6,7,8   C1 LOW, C1 HIGH, C2 LOW, C2 HIGH
  9,10      /CS1, /CS0
  11,12,13  /CAS, MUX, BA
  D,E,24,22 /RAS, Phi0, Phi2, AEC
  2,3       5VDC
  I,A,CC,25 GND
  AA,BB     N.C.
  Z         N.C. (RAMEN ?)
  23        EXT AUDIO IN

User Port - PLUS/4 Only - Not C16/C116 - 24pin Male Edge
  M,E,D,B8?,H,L,C   6551A TxD,DTR,RTS,RxC,DCD,DSR,RxD
  1,12,A,N          GND
  2                 5VDC
  10,11             9VAC1, 9VAC2
  9                 SIO ATN
  3                 /RESET (OUT)
  F,J,7,6,5,4,K,B8? 6529B P7-P0

Power Supply Input
C16/C116: +9VDC
PLUS/4: Female 4pin "Square-DIN-Style" with 9VAC and +5.2VDC
Internally, all mainboards are running at raw 5VDC, the other voltages are used only to increase the room temperature, and for external hardware: Cassette Motor (9VDC), and User Port (9VAC).


 Keyboard Matrix

Note: On C64 and VIC20, Row and Column are bi-directional, conventionally Column=Output and Row=Input are used, but some programs are using the opposite directions. The C16 and Plus/4 are always using Col=Out, Row=In.

C64 Keyboard Matrix
The keyboard is arranged in form of a 8x8 matrix, a column must be selected by writing to CIA#1 Data Port A, the Row 0-7 data can be read from CIA#1 Data Port B as Bit 0-7:
  Bit    Col0  Col1  Col2  Col3  Col4  Col5  Col6  Col7
  Row0   DEL   "3"   "5"   "7"   "9"   "+"   PND   "1"
  Row1   RET   "W"   "R"   "Y"   "I"   "P"   "*"   <--
  Row2   RIGHT "A"   "D"   "G"   "J"   "L"   ";"   CTRL
  Row3   F7    "4"   "6"   "8"   "0"   "-"   HOME  "2"
  Row4   F1    "Z"   "C"   "B"   "M"   "."  RSHIFT SPC
  Row5   F3    "S"   "F"   "H"   "K"   ":"   "="   <C=>
  Row6   F5    "E"   "T"   "U"   "O"   "@"   "^"   "Q"
  Row7   DOWN LSHIFT "X"   "V"   "N"   ","   "/"   STOP
For I/O details see Complex Interface Adapter CIA#1 chapter. The default keyboard translation table is located at address EB81h in KERNAL ROM.

C16 and Plus/4 Keyboard Matrix
Almost same as on C64, only 10 keys are reassigned, mainly cursor related:
  C64   "-"    "+"    POUND HOME   DOWN   RIGHT  RSHIFT <--   "^"    "@"
  C16   UP     DOWN   LEFT  RIGHT  "@"    POUND  ESC?   HOME  "+"    "-"
Also, function keys F1,F3,F5,F7 have been renamed to F1,F2,F3,HELP(F8).
And, the C16 doesn't have a RESTORE key, instead it's having a RESET button.

VIC20 Keyboard Matrix
VIC20 COLUMNS equal to C64 ROWS with Bit3,7 exchanged.
VIC20 ROWS equal to C64 COLUMNS with Bit0,7 exchanged.

C64 Keyboard Layout
  <--  1! 2" 3# 4$ 5% 6& 7' 8( 9) 0  +  -  PND HOME DEL  F1
  CTRL   Q  W  E  R  T  Y  U  I  O  P  @  *  ^  RESTORE  F3
  STP SHL A  S  D  F  G  H  J  K  L  :[ ;]  =  [RETURN]  F5
  C=  SHIFT Z  X  C  V  B  N  M  ,< .> /? SHIFT U/D L/R  F7
            [ _ _ _ _ _ SPACE _ _ _ _ _]

C128 Keyboard Layout
  ESC TAB ALT CAPS    HLP LF 40 SCR     UP DOWN LFT RGT  F1 F3 F5 F7
  <--  1! 2" 3# 4$ 5% 6& 7' 8( 9) 0  +  -  PND HOME DEL  7  8  9  +
  CTRL   Q  W  E  R  T  Y  U  I  O  P  @  *  ^  RESTORE  4  5  6  -
  STP SHL A  S  D  F  G  H  J  K  L  :[ ;]  =  [RETURN]  1  2  3  EN-
  C=  SHIFT Z  X  C  V  B  N  M  ,< .> /? SHIFT U/D L/R  [-0-] .  TER
            [ _ _ _ _ _ SPACE _ _ _ _ _]

C16 (66 type-writer keys; 3xSHIFT; cursor keys L/R/U/D in upper row)
  ESC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 L R U D DEL F1
  CTRL Q W E R T Y U I O P @ + - HOME F2
  RN SL A S D F G H J K L ; : * RETRN F3
  C= SHF Z X C V B N M , . / SHF $ =  HELP
         [------SPACE------]

C116 (65 flat-short-way keys; 2xSHIFT)
      F1  F2  F3  HELP  HOME? DEL?
  ESC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 + - *
  CTRL Q W E R T Y U I O P @ RET
  RUN $ A S D F G H J K L [  ] =   _|_
  C= SHF Z X C V B N M , . / SHF    |
         [------SPACE------]

Plus/4 (67 type-writer keys, 3xSHIFT, 2xCTRL)
      F1  F2  F3  HELP                     <-- reset button (side)
  ESC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 + - = HOME DEL
  CTRL Q W E R T Y U I O P @ PND *  CTRL
  RN SL A S D F G H J K L [  ] RETURN
  C= SHF Z X C V B N M , . / SHF   _|_
           [-----SPACE-----]        |

The SHIFT LOCK Key (SHL)
The C64 has three SHIFT keys (two normal SHIFT keys, and one SHIFT LOCK key). Left Shift and Shift Lock share the same entry in the keyboard matrix. The shift lock key is having a mechanical locking/unlocking function (similar like a ball-pen, it remains down when pressed once, and remains up when pressed another time).

The RESTORE Key
The Restore key is not part of the keyboard matrix, instead it is connected to the CPUs NMI signal, producing a non-maskable interrupt when pressed. On C64 it goes directly to the NMI line (and cannot be disabled), on VIC20 it is connected to VIA1 (allowing to enable/disable the NMI). Software should include a dummy NMI handler to prevent crashes when touching this key. For details see Interrupt chapter.

Description of other special C64 keys...
  Key   Full name   Normal use            Shifted use
  HOME  CLR/HOME    Move cursor to 0,0    Move to 0,0 and clear screen
  DEL   INST/DEL    Backspace             Insert one SPACE not moving cursor
  STP   RUN/STOP    Stop/Break            Start Cassette Loading (LOAD+RUN)
  C=    COMMODORE   Keycombinations...    Toggle Character Set 1 and 2
  U/D   CRSR        Cursor Down           Cursor Up
  L/R   CRSR        Cursor Right          Cursor Left
  F1/F2 FUNCTION    F1                    F2
  F3/F4 FUNCTION    F3                    F4
  F5/F6 FUNCTION    F5                    F6
  F7/F8 FUNCTION    F7                    F8
The "<--" key displays the 'arrow left' symbol. The "PND" key displays the 'pound' symbol, chr(5Ch), which is the backslash on computers with real ASCII character set.
The RESTORE+STOP key combination produces a warmboot ???


 KERNAL Functions

KERNAL Functions (C64: FF81h-FFF5h, VIC20: FF8Ah-FFF5h)
KERNAL Load/Save Functions
KERNAL General File Input/Output
KERNAL Serial Bus Low Level Functions
KERNAL System Control
KERNAL Error Handling

KERNAL Memory (0000h-03FFh)
KERNAL First Kilobyte RAM (0000h-03FFh)

KERNAL POWER-UP ACTIVITIES
     The KERNAL then checks for the presence of an autostart ROM cartridge
     at location C64:8000h, VIC20:A000h. If this is present, normal
     initialization is suspended, and control is transferred to the car-
     tridge code.


 KERNAL Load/Save Functions

FFBA - SETLFS - Set up a logical file
In: A=file_number, X=device_number (0-1Fh), Y=secondary address/channel
Out: N/A
  The following codes are used by the Commodore 64 to stand for the
  CBM devices listed below:
    ADDRESS  DEVICE
    0        Keyboard
    1        Datassette(TM)
    2        RS-232C device
    3        CRT display
    4        Serial bus printer
    8        CBM serial bus disk drive
  Device numbers 4 or greater automatically refer to devices on the
  serial bus.
    A command to the device is sent as a secondary address on the serial
  bus after the device number is sent during the serial attention
  handshaking sequence. If no secondary address is to be sent, the Y index
  register should be set to 255.

FFBD - SETNAM - Set file name
Used to prepare address & length of filename for OPEN, LOAD, SAVE functions.
In: A=Length (0=None), Y:X=Address (if length nonzero) - Out: N/A

FFD5 - LOAD - Load RAM from device
Use SETLFS and SETNAM to prepare additional parameters before LOAD.
The Secondary Address parameter (SA) is misused to select the target address in memory, either the address in Y:X registers, or the original file address stored in file header.
In: A (0=Load, 1=Verify), SA (0=Load to Y:X, 1=Load to Header Address)
Out: A=???, Y:X=End Address of file
Error returns: 0,4,5,8,9, READST

FFD8 - SAVE - Save memory to a device
Use SETLFS and SETNAM to prepare additional parameters before SAVE.
In: WORD[A]=Start Address, Y:X=End Address
Note: The A-register must point to a 16bit value in page zero.
Error returns: 5,8,9, READST
    Registers affected: A, X, Y


 KERNAL General File Input/Output

FFC0 - OPEN - Open a logical file
Use SETLFS and SETNAM to prepare the parameters before using OPEN.
In: N/A - Out: A,X,Y=Destroyed
Error returns: 1,2,4,5,6,240, READST

FFC6 - CHKIN - Select handle for CHRIN/GETIN
Use OPEN to initialize the file_handle before use.
This function automatically invokes TALK and TKSA.
In: X=file_handle - Out: A,X=Destroyed

FFC9 - CHKOUT - Select handle for CHROUT
Use OPEN to initialize the file_handle before use.
This function automatically invokes LISTEN and SECOND.
In: X=file_handle - Out: A,X=Destroyed

FFE4 - GETIN - Get a character
In: N/A - Out: A=Data, X,Y=Destroyed
  Preparatory routines: CHKIN, OPEN
  Error returns: See READST
 Description: If the channel is the keyboard, this subroutine removes
  one character from the keyboard queue and returns it as an ASCII value in
  the accumulator. If the queue is empty, the value returned in the
  accumulator will be zero. Characters are put into the queue automatically
  by an interrupt driven keyboard scan routine which calls the SCNKEY
  routine. The keyboard buffer can hold up to ten characters. After the
  buffer is filled, additional characters are ignored until at least one
  character has been removed from the queue.
 If the channel is RS-232, then
  only the A register is used and a single character is returned. See
  READST to check validity. If the channel is serial, cassette, or screen,
  call BASIN routine.

  How to Use:
    1) Call this routine using a JSR instruction.
    2) Check for a zero in the accumulator (empty buffer).
    3) Process the data.
  EXAMPLE:
         ;WAIT FOR A CHARACTER
    WAIT JSR GETIN
         CMP #0
         BEQ WAIT

FFCF - CHRIN - Get a character from the input channel
Use OPEN and CHKIN to initialize and select the channel.
XXX behaves special when reading from keyboard ???
In: N/A - Out: A=Data, X=Destroyed
Error returns: 0 (See READST)

FFD2 - CHROUT - Output a character
Use OPEN and CHKOUT to initialize and select the channel.
In: A=Data - Out: A=Destroyed
Error returns: 0 (See READST)

  +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
  | NOTE: Care must be taken when using this routine to send data to a    |
  | specific serial device since data will be sent to all open output     |
  | channels on the bus. Unless this is desired, all open output channels |
  | on the serial bus other than the intended destination channel must be |
  | closed by a call to the KERNAL CLRCHN routine.                        |
  +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+

FFCC - CLRCHN - Clear I/O channels
In: N/A - Out: A,X=Destroyed
  Description: This routine is called to clear all open channels and re-
  store the I/O channels to their original default values. It is usually
  called after opening other I/O channels (like a tape or disk drive) and
  using them for input/output operations. The default input device is 0
  (keyboard). The default output device is 3 (the Commodore 64 screen).
    If one of the channels to be closed is to the serial port, an UNTALK
  signal is sent first to clear the input channel or an UNLISTEN is sent to
  clear the output channel. By not calling this routine (and leaving lis-
  tener(s) active on the serial bus) several devices can receive the same
  data from the Commodore 64 at the same time. One way to take advantage
  of this would be to command the printer to TALK and the disk to LISTEN.
  This would allow direct printing of a disk file.
    This routine is automatically called when the KERNAL CLALL routine is
  executed.

FFC3 - CLOSE - Close a logical file
In: A=file handle - Out: A,X,Y=Destroyed
Error returns: 0,240 (See READST)
  Description: This routine is used to close a logical file after all I/O
  operations have been completed on that file. This routine is called after
  the accumulator is loaded with the logical file number to be closed (the
  same number used when the file was opened using the OPEN routine).

FFE7 - CLALL - Close all files
In: N/A - Out: A,X=Destroyed
  Description: This routine closes all open files. When this routine is
  called, the pointers into the open file table are reset, closing all
  files. Also, the CLRCHN routine is automatically called to reset the I/O
  channels.


 KERNAL Serial Bus Low Level Functions

Receive Functions: TALK, TKSA, ACPTR, UNTLK
Send Functions: LISTEN, SECOND, CIOUT, UNLSN

FFA5 - ACPTR - Get data from the serial bus
Prepare by TALK and TKSA before use.
In: N/A - Out: A=Received Data, X=Destroyed.
Error returns: See READST

FFA8 - CIOUT - Transmit a byte over the serial bus
Prepare by LISTEN and SECOND and TKSA before use.
In: A=Data - Out: N/A
Error returns: See READST

  This routine always buffers one character. (The routine holds the previous
  character to be sent back.) So when a call to the UNLSN routine is made to
  end the data transmission, the buffered character is sent with an End Or
  Identify (EOI) set. Then the UNLSN command is sent to the device.

FFB1 - LISTEN - Command a device on the serial bus to receive data
  In: A=Device Number (0-1Fh)
  Error returns: See READST
  Registers affected: A
LISTEN will OR the number bit by bit to convert to a listen address, then transmits this data as a command on the serial bus.
The specified device will then go into listen mode, and be ready to accept information.

FF93 - SECOND - Send secondary address for LISTEN
    Communication registers: A
    Preparatory routines: LISTEN
    Error returns: See READST
    Registers affected: A
  Description: This routine is used to send a secondary address to an
  I/O device after a call to the LISTEN routine is made, and the device is
  commanded to LISTEN. The routine can NOT be used to send a secondary
  address after a call to the TALK routine.
  A secondary address is usually used to give setup information to a
  device before I/O operations begin.
  When a secondary address is to be sent to a device on the serial bus,
  the address must first be ORed with $60.

FFAE - UNLSN - Send an UNLISTEN command on serial bus
  In: N/A - Out: A=Destroyed
  Error returns: See READST
Commands all devices on the serial bus to stop receiving data. Only devices previously commanded to listen are affected.

FFBA - TALK - Command a device on the serial bus to TALK
In: A=Device number (0-1Fh) - Out: A=Destroyed
Error returns: See READST

FF96 - TKSA - Send a secondary address to a device commanded to TALK
Use TALK to send the device number before using TKSA.
TKSA is required if the device does use secondary address.
In: A=Secondary Address (0..1Fh), eg. disk channel_number - Out: A=Destroyed
Error returns: See READST

FFAB - UNTLK - Send an UNTALK command on serial bus
  In: N/A - Out: A=Destroyed
  Error returns: See READST
All devices previously set to TALK will stop sending data when this command is received.


 KERNAL System Control

FF81 - CINT - Initialize screen editor & 6567 video chip
C64 Only - Not supported by VIC20 !!!
In: N/A - Out: A,X,Y=Destroyed
  Description: This routine sets up the 6567 video controller chip in the
  Commodore 64 for normal operation. The KERNAL screen editor is also
  initialized. This routine should be called by a Commodore 64 program
  cartridge.

FF84 - IOINIT - Initialize I/O devices
C64 Only - Not supported by VIC20 !!!
In: N/A - Out: A,X,Y=Destroyed
  Description: This routine initializes all input/output devices and
  routines. It is normally called as part of the initialization procedure
  of a Commodore 64 program cartridge.

FF87 - RAMTAS - Perform RAM test
C64 Only - Not supported by VIC20 !!!
In: N/A - Out: A,X,Y = Destroyed, TwoSecondsOfYourLife = Wasted.
  Description: This routine is used to test RAM and set the top and
  bottom of memory pointers accordingly. It also clears locations $0000 to
  $0101 and $0200 to $03FF. It also allocates the cassette buffer, and sets
  the screen base to $0400. Normally, this routine is called as part of the
  initialization process of a Commodore 64 program cartridge.

FF8A - RESTOR - Restore default system and interrupt vectors
In: N/A - Out: A,X,Y=Destroyed
  Description: This routine restores the default values of all system
  vectors used in KERNAL and BASIC routines and interrupts. (See the Memory
  Map for the default vector contents). The VECTOR routine is used
  to read and alter individual system vectors.

FF8D - VECTOR - Copy KERNAL vectors [0314h-0333h] to/from Buffer [Y:X]
  Get: In: Cy=1, Y:X=Target Address - Out: A,X,Y=Destroyed
  Set: In: Cy=0, Y:X=Source Address - Out: A,X,Y=Destroyed
BUG: Programmers Reference suggests using a 26 bytes buffer, all C64/VIC20 Kernal versions actually require 32 bytes (20h) buffer.

FF9C - MEMBOT - Get or Set bottom of RAM
  Set: In: Cy=0, Y:X=Address
  Get: In: Cy=1 - Out: Y:X=Address (usually 800h on C64)

FF99 - MEMTOP - Get or Set the top of RAM
  Set: In: Cy=0, Y:X=Address
  Get: In: Cy=1 - Out: Y:X=Address (usually A000h on C64)

FF9F - SCNKEY - Scan the keyboard
Preparatory routines: IOINIT
  In: N/A - Out: A,X,Y=Destroyed
Scans the keyboard, if a key is down, its ASCII value is placed in the keyboard queue, which can be then read by GETIN.
SCNKEY is normally automatically called by the interrupt handler.

FFED - SCREEN - Get Computers Screen Format
  Out: X=Width, Y=Height (40x25 for C64/C16, 22x23 for VIC20)

FFF0 - PLOT - Get or Set Cursor Location
  Set: In: Cy=0, X=0..24, Y=0..39 - Out: A=Destroyed
  Get: In: Cy=1 - Out: X=0..24, Y=0..39
Note that the X-register has been choosen to specify the Y-position.

FFF3 - IOBASE - Get Computers I/O Base Address
Out: Y:X=Address (C64: DC00h, CIA#1) (VIC20: 9110h, VIA#1) (C16: FD00h, ACIA)

FFDB - SETTIM - Set the system clock
In: Y:X:A=Time in 1/60 seconds (jiffies) - Out: N/A

FFDE - RDTIM - Read system clock
  In: N/A - Out: Y:X:A=Time in 1/60 seconds (jiffies)
  The clock range is 24 hours, 0..5183999 (0..4F19FFh) jiffies,
  and starts over at zero when exceeding that range.
Note: The clock is NOT battery buffered, it is reset to zero on power up.
BUG: Programmers Guide incorrectly specified A:X:Y ordering for RDTIM/SETTIM.
The clock is incremented by CIA1 only 20x per second ??? Or is that 3x CPU-clock ??? Inaccuracy with PAL/NTSC oscillators which are both not exact 1MHZ ???

FFEA - UDTIM - Update the system clock
Increments the system clock by 1 jiffie (=1/60 seconds).
This function is usually called by the KERNALs interrupt handler.
In: N/A - Out: A,X=Destroyed

FFA2 - SETTMO - Set IEEE bus card timeout flag
  In: A.Bit7 Timeout Flag (0=Set/Enable, 1=Reset/Disable) - Out: Same
NOTE: This routine is used ONLY with an IEEE add-on card!
  Description: When the timeout flag is set, the Kernal will wait for a
  device on the IEEE port for 64 milliseconds. If the device does not
  respond to the Data Address Valid (DAV) signal within that time then the
  Kernal will recognize an error condition and leave the handshake sequence.
NOTE: The Commodore 64 uses the timeout feature to communicate that a disk file is not found on an attempt to OPEN a file only with an IEEE card.

FFE1 - STOP - Check if <STOP> key is pressed
  In: N/A - Out: A,X=Destroyed, Zeroflag=STOP Flag
If the <STOP> key on the keyboard was pressed during a UDTIM call, this call returns the Z flag set. In addition, the channels will be reset to default values.


 KERNAL Error Handling

  ERROR RETURNS: A return from a KERNAL routine with the CARRY set
  indicates that an error was encountered in processing. The accumulator
  will contain the number of the error.
  NOTE: Some KERNAL I/O routines do not use these codes for error
  messages. Instead, errors are identified using the KERNAL READST
  routine.
Additionally, disk drives provide additional error information by reading from the drives error channel (see Disk chapter for more info).

Error codes in Accumulator (A-Register)
  If an error occurs during a KERNAL routine, the carry bit is set,
  and the number of the error message is returned in the accumulator.
  Num  Expl.
  0    Routine terminated by the <STOP> key
  1    Too many open files
  2    File already open
  3    File not open
  4    File not found
  5    Device not present
  6    File is not an input file
  7    File is not an output file
  8    File name is missing
  9    Illegal device number
  240  Top-of-memory change RS-232 buffer allocation/deallocation

FFB7 - READST - Read Status Word of Serial Bus and Cassette operations
In: N/A - Out: A, Bit 0-7 (0=Okay, 1=Error) (See table)
  Bit  Expl.
  0    Serial Bus: Time out write
  1    Serial Bus: Time out read
  2    Cassette: Short Block
  3    Cassette: Long Block
  4    Cassette: Any mismatch/Unrecoverable read error
  5    Cassette: Checksum error
  6    Cassette: End of file, Serial Bus: EOI line (End Or Identify)
  7    Cassette: End of tape, Serial Bus: Device not present

FF90 - SETMSG - Enable/Disable Screen Output of Control & Error Messages
    Communication registers: A
    Registers affected: A
  Bit7  0=Disable, 1=Enable Control Messages (eg. PRESS PLAY ON CASSETTE)
  Bit6  0=Disable, 1=Enable Error Messages   (eg. FILE NOT FOUND)


 KERNAL First Kilobyte RAM (0000h-03FFh)

Below describes the C64/VIC20 operating system usage of the first kilobyte of RAM. Caution: The C16 uses different addresses.
Fixed assignments are 0100h-01FFh (CPU stack), and 0314h-0319h (IRQ/BRK/NMI vectors). The other memory can be used for whatever purpose by Non-OS-based programs.

  Address      Name    Expl.
  0000h        D6510   C64: 6510 On-Chip Data-Direction Register
  0001h        R6510   C64: 6510 On-Chip Data-Input/Output Register
  0002h                C64: Unused
BASIC Working Storage (0000h-008Fh)
  0000h                VIC20: USR Function JMP Opcode (4Ch) (C64: see 0310h)
  0001h-0002h          VIC20: USR Function Vector (MSB,LSB) (C64: see 0311h)
  0003h-0004h  ADRAY1  Jump Vector: Convert Float--Integer
  0005h-0006h  ADRAY2  Jump Vector: Convert Integer--Float
  0007h        CHARAC  Search Character
  0008h        ENDCHR  Flag: Scan for Quote at End of String
  0009h        TRMPOS  Screen Column From Last TAB
  000Ah        VERCK   Flag: 0=Load, 1=Verify
  000Bh        COUNT   Input Buffer Pointer / Number of Subscripts
  000Ch        DIMFLG  Flag: Default Array DIMension
  000Dh        VALTYP  Data Type: FFh=String, 00h=Numeric
  000Eh        INTFLG  Data Type: 80h=Integer, 00h=Float
  000Fh        GARBFL  Flag: DATA scan/LIST quote/Garbage Coll
  0010h        SUBFLG  Flag: Subscript Ref / User FNx Function Call
  0011h        INPFLG  Flag: 00h=INPUT, 40h=GET, 98h=READ
  0012h        TANSGN  Flag: ATN/TAN sign / Comparison Result
  0013h                Flag: INPUT Prompt
  0014h-0015h  LINNUM  Temp: Integer Value (see Float conversion 0003h,0005h)
  0016h        TEMPPT  Pointer Temporary String Stack
  0017h-0018h  LASTPT  Last Temp String Address
  0019h-0021h  TEMPST  Stack for Temporary Strings
  0022h-0025h  INDEX   Utility Pointer Area (0022h: INDEX1, 0024h: INDEX2)
  0026h-002Ah  RESHO   Floating-Point Product of Multiply
  002Bh-002Ch  TXTTAB  Pointer: Start of BASIC Program
  002Dh-002Eh  VARTAB  Pointer: Start of BASIC Variables (End of Basic program)
  002Fh-0030h  ARYTAB  Pointer: Start of BASIC Arrays (End of Variables)
  0031h-0032h  STREND  Pointer: Start of free memory (End of Arrays+1)
  0033h-0034h  FRETOP  Pointer: Bottom of String Storage (End of Free memory)
  0035h-0036h  FRESPC  Utility String Pointer
  0037h-0038h  MEMSIZ  Pointer: Highest Address Used by BASIC (End of Strings)
  0039h-003Ah  CURLIN  Current BASIC Line Number
  003Bh-003Ch  OLDLIN  Previous BASIC Line Number
  003Dh-003Eh  OLDTXT  Pointer: BASIC Statement for CONT
  003Fh-0040h  DATLIN  Current DATA Line Number
  0041h-0042h  DATPTR  Pointer: Current DATA Item Address
  0043h-0044h  INPPTR  Vector: INPUT Routine
  0045h-0046h  VARNAM  Current BASIC Variable Name
  0047h-0048h  VARPNT  Current BASIC Variable Address (Pointer)
  0049h-004Ah  FORPNT  Pointer: Index Variable for FOR/NEXT
  004Bh-0060h          Temp Pointer / Data Area
  004Bh-004Ch  VARTXT  Temporary storage for TXTPTR during READ, INPUT, GET
  004Dh        OPMASK  Mask used during FRMEVL / Comparison symbol accumulator
  004Eh-0052h  TEMPF3  Temporary storage for FLPT value.
  0053h        FOUR6   Length of String Variable during Garbage collection.
  0054h-0056h  JMPER   Jump Vector used in Function Evaluation (4Ch, LSB, MSB)
  0057h-005Bh  TEMPF1  Temporary storage for FLPT value.
  005Ch-0060h  TEMPF2  Temporary storage for FLPT value.
.................
  0061h-0066h  FAC     Floating-Point Accumulator 1 (Exp,4-Byte Mantissa,Sign)
  0067h        SGNFLG  Pointer: Series Evaluation Constant
  0068h        BITS    Floating-Point Accumulator 1 (Overflow Digit)
  0069h-006Eh  ARG     Floating-Point Accumulator 2 (Exp,4-Byte Mantissa,Sign)
  006Fh        ARISGN  Sign Comparison Result: Accumulator 1 vs 2
  0070h        FACOV   Floating-Point Accumulator 1 (Low-Order, Rounding)
  0071h-0072h  FBUFPT  Pointer: Cassette Buffer
  0073h-0078h  CHRGET  Subroutine: Get Next Byte of BASIC Text
  0079h        CHRGOT  Subroutine: Entry to Get Same Byte of Text Again
  007Ah-007Bh  TXTPTR  Pointer: Current Byte of BASIC Text
  007Ch-008A           Subroutine: Rest of the CHRGET/CHRGOT Subroutines
  008Bh-008Fh  RNDX    Floating RND Function Seed Value
KERNAL Working Storage (0090h-00FFh)
  0090h        STATUS  Kernal I/O Status Word: ST
  0091h        STKEY   Flag: STOP key / RVS key
  0092h        SVXT    Timing Constant for Tape
  0093h        VERCK   Flag: 0=Load, 1=Verify
  0094h        C3PO    Flag: Serial Bus-Output Character Buffered
  0095h        BSOUR   Buffered Character for Serial Bus
  0096h        SYNO    Cassette Sync No. / Tape EOT received
  0097h                Temp Data Area / Register save
  0098h        LDTND   Number of Open Files / Index to File Table
  0099h        DFLTN   Default Input Device (normally 0=Keyboard)
  009Ah        DFLTO   Default Output (CMD) Device (normally 3=Screen)
  009Bh        PRTY    Tape Character Parity
  009Ch        DPSW    Flag: Tape Byte-Received
  009Dh        MSGFLG  Flag: 80h=Direct Mode, 00h=Program RUN
  009Eh        PTR1    Tape Pass 1 Error Log
  009Fh        PTR2    Tape Pass 2 Error Log
  00A0h-00A2h  TIME    60Hz Real-Time Jiffy Clock (approx) 1/60 Sec
  00A3h-00A4h          Temp Data Area
  00A5h        CNTDN   Cassette Sync Countdown
  00A6h        BUFPNT  Pointer: Tape I/O Buffer
  00A7h        INBIT   RS-232 Input Bits / Cassette Temp
  00A8h        BITCI   RS-232 Input Bit Count / Cassette Temp
  00A9h        RINONE  RS-232 Flag: Check for Start Bit
  00AAh        RIDATA  RS-232 Input Byte Buffer/Cassette Temp
  00ABh        RIPRTY  RS-232 Input Parity / Cassette Short Cnt
  00ACh-00ADh  SAL     Pointer: Tape Buffer / Screen Scrolling
  00AEh-00AFh  EAL     Tape End Addresses/End of Program
  00B0h-00B1h  CMP0    Tape Timing Constants
  00B2h-00B3h  TAPE1   Pointer: Start of Tape Buffer
  00B4h        BITTS   RS-232 Out Bit Count / Cassette Temp
  00B5h        NXTBIT  RS-232 Next Bit to Send/ Tape EOT Flag
  00B6h        RODATA  RS-232 Out Byte Buffer
  00B7h        FNLEN   Length of Current File Name
  00B8h        LA      Current Logical File Number
  00B9h        SA      Current Secondary Address
  00BAh        FA      Current Device Number
  00BBh-00BCh  FNADR   Pointer: Current File Name
  00BDh        ROPRTY  RS-232 Out Parity / Cassette Temp
  00BEh        FSBLK   Cassette Read / Write Block Count
  00BFh        MYCH    Serial Word Buffer
  00C0h        CAS1    Tape Motor Interlock
  00C1h-00C2h  STAL    I/O Start Address (VIC20:8000h, C64:A000h) (both wrong?)
  00C3h-00C4h  MEMUSS  Tape Load Temps / VIC20: KERNAL setup pointer
  00C5h        LSTX    Current Key Pressed (40h=None) (0-3Fh=Key Number)
                       The Key Numbers differ on C64/VIC20. If more than 1 key
                       is down, the key with the highest number shows up here.
                       Not used for special keys like SHIFT, CTRL, etc.
  00C6h        NDX     Number of Chars in Keyboard Buffer (see also: 0277h)
  00C7h        RVS     Flag: Reverse Chars (01h=On/Yes, 00h=Off/Not Used)
  00C8h        INDX    Pointer: End of Logical Line for INPUT
  00C9h-00CAh  LXSP    Cursor X,Y Position at Start of INPUT
  00CBh        SFDX    C64: Flag: Print Shifted Chars.
  00CBh                VIC20: Current key pressed (same as 00C5h)
  00CCh        BLNSW   Cursor Blink enable (0=Flash Cursor) (copy of 00C6h)
  00CDh        BLNCT   Timer: Countdown to Toggle Cursor
  00CEh        GDBLN   Character Under Cursor
  00CFh        BLNON   Flag: Last Cursor Blink On/Off
  00D0h        CRSW    Flag: INPUT or GET from Keyboard / from screen
  00D1h-00D2h  PNT     Pointer: Cursor Current Screen Line Address
  00D3h        PNTR    Cursor Column on Current Line
  00D4h        QTSW    Flag: Editor in Quote Mode (00h=No/Direct Cursor)
  00D5h        LNMX    Screen Line Length, screen_width*(1..4)-1
  00D6h        TBLX    Current Cursor Line Number (see also: 00D1h-00D2h,00D3h)
  00D7h                Temp Data Area, last inkey/checksum/buffer
  00D8h        INSRT   Insert Mode (00h=Disable, NNh=Number of spaces left)
  00D9h-00F2h  LDTB1   Screen Line Link Table / Editor Temps
  00F3h-00F4h  USER    Pointer: Current Screen Color RAM location
  00F5h-00F6h  KEYTAB  Pointer: Current Keyboard Decode Table (Norm,Shift,etc.)
  00F7h-00F8h  RIBUF   RS-232 Input Rcv Buffer Pointer
  00F9h-00FAh  ROBUF   RS-232 Output Tx Buffer Pointer
  00FBh-00FEh  FREKZP  User Program Zero-Page Space (not used by BASIC/KERNAL)
  00FFh        BASZPT  BASIC Temp Data Area
BASIC & KERNAL Stack (0100h-01FFh)
  0100h-01FFh          Micro-Processor System Stack Area
   0100h-010Ah         Floating to String Work Area
   0100h-013Eh BAD     Tape Error Log
BASIC & KERNAL Working Storage (0200h-033Bh)
  0200h-0258h  BUF     System INPUT Buffer
  0259h-0262h  LAT     KERNAL Table: Active OPEN Logical File Numbers
  0263h-026Ch  FAT     KERNAL Table: Device Number for each File
  026Dh-0276h  SAT     KERNAL Table: Secondary Address for each File
  0277h-0280h  KEYD    Keyboard Buffer Queue (see also: 00C6h,0289h)
  0281h-0282h  MEMSTR  Pointer: Bottom of Memory for Operating System
  0283h-0284h  MEMSIZ  Pointer: Top of Memory for Operating System
  0285h        TIMOUT  Flag: Kernal Variable for IEEE or Serial Timeout
  0286h        COLOR   Current Character Color Code
  0287h        GDCOL   Background Color Under Cursor
  0288h        HIBASE  Start of Screen Memory (MSB=Page)
  0289h        XMAX    Size of Keyboard Buffer (max 0Ah, see also: 0277h,0289h)
  028Ah        RPTFLG  Flag: Key Repeat (00h=Cursor Keys, 80h=All keys)
  028Bh        KOUNT   Key Repeat Speed Counter
  028Ch        DELAY   Key Repeat Delay Counter
  028Dh        SHFLAG  Keyboard Flags (Bit0=Shift, Bit1=Commodore, Bit2=Ctrl)
  028Eh        LSTSHF  Last Keyboard Shift Pattern
  028Fh-0290h  KEYLOG  Vector: Keyboard Table Setup / Decode Logic
  0291h        MODE    Flag: SHIFT+COMMODORE Case Switch (0=Enable,80h=Disable)
  0292h        AUTODN  Flag: Auto Scroll Down (0=On, other=Off)
  0293h        M51CTR  RS-232: 6551 Control Register Image
  0294h        MS1CDR  RS-232: 6551 Command Register Image
  0295h-0296h  M51AJB  RS-232 Non-Standard BPS (Time/2-100) USA
  0297h        RSSTAT  RS-232: 6551 Status Register Image
  0298h        BITNUM  RS-232 Number of bits left to send
  0299h-029Ah  BAUDOF  RS-232 Baud Rate: Full Bit Time (us)
  029Bh        RIDBE   RS-232 Index to Input Buffer End
  029Ch        RIDBS   RS-232 Start of Input Buffer (Page)
  029Dh        RODBS   RS-232 Start of Output Buffer (Page)
  029Eh        RODBE   RS-232 Index to Output Buffer End
  029Fh-02A0h  IRQTMP  Holds IRQ Vector During Tape I/O
  02A1h-02FFh          VIC20: Program indirects
  02A1h        ENABL   C64: RS-232 Enables
  02A2h                C64: TOD Sense During Cassette I/O
  02A3h                C64: Temp Storage For Cassette Read
  02A4h                C64: Temp D1 IRQ Indicator For Cassette Read
  02A5h                C64: Temp For Line Index
  02A6h                C64: PAL/NTSC Flag, 0= NTSC, 1 = PAL
  02A7h-02FFh          C64: Unused
  0300h-0301h  IERROR  Vector: Print BASIC Error Message
  0302h-0303h  IMAIN   Vector: BASIC Warm Start
  0304h-0305h  ICRNCH  Vector: Tokenize BASIC Text (Crunch)
  0306h-0307h  IQPLOP  Vector: BASIC Text LIST (Print Tokens)
  0308h-0309h  IGONE   Vector: BASIC Char. Dispatch / Start new Basic code link
  030Ah-030Bh  IEVAL   Vector: BASIC Token Evaluation / arithmetic element link
  030Ch-030Fh  SxREG   Storage for 6502 Registers A,X,Y,P
  0310h-0313h          VIC20: Unused ?
  0310h        USRPOK  C64: USR Function JMP Opcode (4Ch) (VIC20: see 0000h)
  0311h-0312h  USRADD  C64: USR Function Vector (LSB,MSB) (VIC20: see 0001h)
  0313h                C64: Unused
  0314h-0315h  CINV    CPU IRQ Vector (redirected IRQ with A,X,Y pushed)
  0316h-0317h  CBINV   CPU BRK Vector (redirected BRK with A,X,Y pushed)
  0318h-0319h  NMINV   CPU NMI Vector (redirected NMI without anything pushed)
  031Ah-031Bh  IOPEN   KERNAL OPEN Vector
  031Ch-031Dh  ICLOSE  KERNAL CLOSE Vector
  031Eh-031Fh  ICHKIN  KERNAL CHKIN Vector
  0320h-0321h  ICKOUT  KERNAL CHKOUT Vector
  0322h-0323h  ICLRCH  KERNAL CLRCHN Vector
  0324h-0325h  IBASIN  KERNAL CHRIN Vector
  0326h-0327h  IBSOUT  KERNAL CHROUT Vector
  0328h-0329h  ISTOP   KERNAL STOP Vector
  032Ah-032Bh  IGETIN  KERNAL GETIN Vector
  032Ch-032Dh  ICLALL  KERNAL CLALL Vector
  032Eh-032Fh  USRCMD  User-Defined Vector
  0330h-0331h  ILOAD   KERNAL LOAD Vector
  0332h-0333h  ISAVE   KERNAL SAVE Vector
  0334h-033Bh          Unused
Tape Buffer Working Storage (033Ch-03FFh)
  033Ch-03FBh  TBUFFR  Tape I/O Buffer (General purpose RAM when CAS not used)
  03FCh-03FFh          Unused


 Versatile Interface Adapter 6522 (VIA)

00h - Input/Output Register B (IRB/ORB) (PB7..PB0)
  Bit  Expl.
  7-0  Input/Output lines PB7..PB0      (0=Low, 1=High)
Writing always sets the ORB output latch (even in input mode).
Reading unlatched-inputs returns current state of PB pins.
Reading latched-inputs returns state of PB pins at most recent CB1 edge.
Reading outputs will directly return ORB settings, regardless of PB pins and/or latching (unlike as for Register A below).
Reading/writing IRB/ORB acknowledges CB1 Edge IRQ, and (in Non-independend mode) also acknowledges CB2 Edge IRQ.

01h - Input/Output Register A (IRA/ORA) (PA7..PA0)
  Bit  Expl.
  7-0  Input/Output lines PA7..PA0      (0=Low, 1=High)
Writing always sets the ORA output latch (even in input mode).
Reading unlatched-inputs returns current state of PA pins.
Reading latched-inputs returns state of PA pins at most recent CA1 edge.
In output mode, reading/latching data from PA pins will most likely represent to ORA data - but may be forcefully pulled high/low by external hardware (unlike as for Register B above).
Reading/writing IRA/ORA acknowledges CA1 Edge IRQ, and (in Non-independend mode) also acknowledges CA2 Edge IRQ.

02h - Data Direction Register B (DDRB)
03h - Data Direction Register A (DDRA)
  Bit  Expl.
  7-0  Direction for Data Port Bits 7-0  (0=Input, 1=Output)

04h - T1 Low-order Counter/Latch (T1C_L)
05h - T1 High-order Counter/Latch (T1C_H)
06h - T1 Low-order Latch (T1L_L)
07h - T1 High-order Latch (T1L_H)
  Reading port 04h/05h returns the upper/lower T1 counter value.
  Reading port 06h/07h returns the lower/upper T1 latch value.
  Reading port 04h resets the T1 interrupt flag (IFR.6).
  Writing port 04h/05h or 06h/07h sets lower/upper bits of the T1 <latch>.
  Writing port 05h copies the 16bit T1 latch to the 16bit T1 counter.
  Writing port 05h/07h resets the T1 interrupt flag (IFR.6).
T1 is a 16bit counter decremented at system clock rate. An interrupt is generated upon underflow. It can be used in one-shot mode, or in continous mode (using the latch as reload value upon underflows). Additionally, it can be configured to toggle the PB7 output upon underflow.

08h - T2 Low-Order Latch/Counter (T2C_L)
09h - T2 High-Order Counter (T2C_H)
  Writing to 08h sets the T2 low-order <latch>.
  Writing to 09h sets the T2 high-order <counter>.
  Writing to 09h also copies lower-order latch to low-order counter.
  Writing to 09h additionally resets the T2 interrupt flag (IFR.5).
  Reading from 08h/09h returns the low/high-order T2 counter value.
  Reading from 08h additionally resets the T2 interrupt flag (IFR.5).
T2 is a one-shot 16bit counter, decremented either at System 02 clock rate, or by negative pulses on PB6 pin. An interrupt is generated upon underflow. T2 can be also used as 8bit prescaler for the Shift register (in that case, the low-order latch is used as 8bit reload value after each bit transfer).

0Ah - 8bit Shift Register (SR)
  Reading/writing SR resets the shift counter, and, in most shift modes,
  starts the transfer and generates an interrupt once the shift counter
  reaches a value of eight.
Serial data is shifted in or out to the left, in case of serial output the register is in fact just rotated to the left, causing the initial content to be restored after 8 shift operations.
Data is input/output at CB2 line, the shift clock is input/output at CB1 line.
Transfer direction, internal clock rate, or external clock selection can be programmed in Auxiliary Control Register.

0Bh - Auxiliary Control Register (ACR)
  Bit  Expl.
  7    T1 Toggle PB7 Output     (0=Disable, 1=Invert PB7 upon underflow)
  6    T1 Continous Mode        (0=One-Shot, 1=Restart upon underflow)
  5    T2 Clock Source          (0=System clock, 1=PB6 negative edge)
  4    Shift Register Direction (0=Shift In, 1=Shift Out)
  3-2  Shift Register Mode      (0-3, see below)
  1    PB Latching Enable       (0=Disable, 1=Latch PB on CB1 Interrupt Flag)
  0    PA Latching Enable       (0=Disable, 1=Latch PA on CA1 Interrupt Flag)
Shift Register Modes:
  0=Free-Run (when Bit4=1), or Disabled (when Bit4=0)
  1=Shift at System 02 Clock rate divided by (2+T2C_L)
  2=Shift at System 02 Clock rate divided by 2
  3=Shift at external CB1 clock rate
In mode Free-Run/Disabled mode, data is shifted in at CB1 rate, or shifted out at T2 rate (by repeatedly outputting 8bit SR data), in either case no interrupts are generated when completing 8bits of data.

0Ch - Peripheral Control Register (PCR)
  Bit  Expl.
  7-5  CB2 Input/Output Control (0-7, see below)
  4    CB1 Input Control        (0-1, see below)
  3-1  CA2 Input/Output Control (0-7, see below)
  0    CA1 Input Control        (0-1, see below)
CB2 and CA2 Control (referred as CX2, with corresponding CX1,PX respectively)
  0 (In)  Interrupt on negative CX2 edge, Acknowldge by read/write Port PX
  1 (In)  Interrupt on negative CX2 edge, Independent (without ack via PX)
  2 (In)  Interrupt on positive CX2 edge, Acknowldge by read/write Port PX
  3 (In)  Interrupt on positive CX2 edge, Independent (without ack via PX)
  4 (Out) Handshake (CX2=LOW on write Port B, CX2=HIGH on active CX1 edge)
  5 (Out) Pulse     (CX2=LOW for 1 cycle on write to Port PX)
  6 (Out) Manual    (CX2=LOW)
  7 (Out) Manual    (CX2=HIGH)
CB1 and CA1 Control (referred as CX1, with corresponding PX respectively)
  0 (In)  Interrupt on negative CX1 edge, Acknowldge by read/write Port PX
  1 (In)  Interrupt on positive CX1 edge, Acknowldge by read/write Port PX

0Dh - Interrupt Flag Register (IFR) (Request/Acknowledge)
0Eh - Interrupt Enable Register (IER) (Enable/Disable)
  Bit  Set by                 Cleared by
  0    CA2 Active edge        Read or write ORA (except in Independed mode)
  1    CA1 Active edge        Read or write ORA
  2    Completed 8 shifts     Read or write SR
  3    CB2 Active edge        Read or write ORB (except in Independed mode)
  4    CB1 Active edge        Read or write ORB
  5    T2 Underflow           Read T2 low or write T2 high
  6    T1 Underflow           Read T1 low or write T1 high
  7    Any enabled interrupt  Cleared only when (IER AND IFR AND 7Fh)=00h
Accessing Interrupt Flag Register:
  Write IFR 0-6   Interrupt Acknowledge           (0=Keep, 1=Set to Zero)
  Write IFR 7     No function                     (Don't care)
  Read IFR 0-6    Interrupt Request Flags         (0=None, 1=Interrupt Request)
  Read IFR 7      Interrupt signal, set when IER AND IFR AND 7Fh is nonzero
Accessing Interrupt Enable Register:
  Write/IER 0-6   Select Interrupt Enable Bits    (0=Keep, 1=Set to Bit7)
  Write/IER 7     New Value for Selected IER Bits (0=Disable, 1=Enable)
  Read/IER 0-6    Current Value of IER Bits 0-6   (0=Disabled, 1=Enabled)
  Read/IER 7      Not used                        (Always 1)
Writing a "1" into IER Bit 0-6 sets the respective bit to the value in IER 7.
Writing a "1" into IFR Bit 0-6 sets the respective bit to zero (the IFR bits can be also cleared by circumstances described in the right column).

0Fh - Input/Output Register A' (IRA'/ORA')
Same as Register 01h, except no CA1/CA2 handshake.

Summary of Input/Output Pins
The VIA includes 16 general purpose pins, 4 control pins, and 1 interrupt pin.
  Pin(s)  Dir  Purpose
  PA0-7   I/O  Eight general purpose I/O pins
  PB0-7   I/O  Eight general purpose I/O pins
  PB6     In   Optionally used as Timer T2 clock source (negative edge)
  PB7     Out  Optionally toggled on each T1 Timer underflow
  CA1/CB1 In   Edge triggered IRQ (with optional Port A/B latching)
  CA2/CB2 In   Edge triggered IRQ (with optional Port A/B Acknowledge)
  CA1/CB1 In   Port A/B handshake input
  CA2/CB2 Out  Fixed High/Low, or Port A/B Handshake output
  CB1/CB2 I/O  Shift-Register clock/data
  IRQ     Out  Interrupt signal send to CPU's /IRQ or /NMI input


 Disk Drive

"Welcome to the fastest, easiest, and most efficient filing system available for your Commodore 64 or VIC 20 computer, your 1541 DISK DRIVE."

Disk Tech Details
Disk Accessing the Drive
Disk Command and Error Channel
Disk Data Channels & File Types
Disk Programming the Disk Controller
Disk Format
Disk and File Images
Disk Memory Map and I/O Ports
Disk Configuration


 Disk Tech Details

1541 Disk Drive
  CPU 6502 ???MHz, 16K ROM, 2K RAM, two 6522 I/O and timer chips
  Read/Write Speed ??? Serial Bus Rate ???
  Two serial bus sockets (one towards computer, other for further devices)
  Power Supply: 100-240V AC, 25 Watts (internally using +5V and +12V)
  Height 97 mm, Width 200 mm, Depth 374 mm, Weight 16 tons
  Diskettes: Standard mini 5 1/4", Single Sided (SS), Single Density (SD)
  Formatting: 35 Tracks, 17-21 sectors per track, 256 bytes per sector
  Total Capacity: 174848 bytes (683 blocks, 256 bytes each)
  Free Space: 168656 bytes (664 blocks, 256-2 bytes each)
  Directory: 144 files per diskette, 16 characters per filename (19 blocks)

The 1541 disk drive is actually a complete computer with CPU, ROM, and RAM. The drive is connected to the computer via serial bus. Commodore describes that overcomplicated circuitry as "intelligent". That is true in so far that all filesystem is handled by the drive, without occupying ROM or RAM areas in the computers memory map.

The downside is that the computers BASIC operating system doesn't know anything about disk drives (it just knows that it talks to something on the serial bus), LOAD and SAVE commands are barely working. But issuing DIR, DELETE, or RENAME commands, or viewing disk error messages works only when using some odd workarounds.

Using Double Sided (DS) Disks
Even though the 1541 disk drive is having only one head, double sided diskettes can be used, simply turn over the disk to use the other side. However, you will need to cut a new write protect notch at the right side of the disk (which becomes left when turned over).
The disk is write-protected when the notch at left side is closed (eg. covered by tape). Of course, because the drive is software controlled, software may easily ignore the write-protect signal.
Note: The drive doesn't use the index hole, so you don't need to cut that, too.


 Disk Accessing the Drive

 LOAD "*",8             ;load first file on disk (or recently accessed file)
 LOAD "FILENAME",8      ;load a specific file by name
 LOAD "FILENAME",8:RUN  ;load and start a file
 LOAD "$",8:LIST        ;load and view the directory
 LOAD "$0:FILE*",8:LIST ;load and view specific names in the directory
 SAVE "FILENAME",8      ;save a file to disk
 SAVE "@0:FILENAME",8   ;save a file to disk and delete old file of same name
 VERIFY "FILENAME",8    ;compare specified file with program in memory

Notes
The drive supports standard wildcards ("*" and "?"). Commodore has also manufactured a dual disk drive (two drives in one case, numbered drive 0 and 1). For 1541, always specify drive "0" in the "$0:" and "@0:" expressions. When loaded to a different memory location, internal pointers may get changed automatically inside of the program, in that case VERIFY would produce an error.

DOS Support Program
A program called DOS Support should be shipped along with the disk drive.
The following abbreviations can be used if DOS Support has been loaded:
  /filename     load a program from disk
  >    or @     read and display error channel
  >$   or @$    read and display directory
  >cmd or @cmd  send command to drive

BASIC Instructions used to access the Disk Drive
  LOAD   file_name, device_number [,command_number]
  SAVE   file_name, device_number [,command_number]
  VERIFY file_name, device_number
  OPEN   file_number, device_number, channel_number [,file_name]
  PRINT# file_number, variable list
  INPUT# file_number, variable list
  GET#   file_number, variable list
  CLOSE  file_number
  STATUS, CHR$, ASC

KERNAL Functions used to access the Disk Drive
  Addr  Name    Expl.
  FFBA  SETLFS  Set logical/physical/secondary address (fileno,device,channel)
  FFBD  SETNAM  Set length and address of filename
  FFC0  OPEN    Open a file (parameters must be prepared by SETLFS/SETNAM)
  FFC3  CLOSE   Close a file
  FFC6  CHKIN   Select file_number for CHRIN
  FFC9  CHKOUT  Select file_number for CHROUT
  FFCC  CLRCHN  Clear all channels (undoes or terminates CHKIN/CHKOUT ???)
  FFCF  CHRIN   Read a byte from the file being selected by CHKIN
  FFD2  CHROUT  Write a byte to the file being selected by CHKOUT

Whereas,
  device_number  values 8-11 for 1st-4th attached drive unit (usually 8)
  drive_number   always 0 for normal drives, value 0-1 for dual drives
  file_number    file handle in computer (use any value 1-127)
  channel_number file handle in drive (0-1 reserved, 2-14 data, 15 cmd/err)
  file_name      ASCII filename (misused to contain parameters in some cases)
  command_number

Using PRINT#
Note that PRINT always produces text output (any numeric parameters are converted into strings), if you want to send a binary number as such then you must specify it as CHR$(nn) to avoid that conversion. PRINT inserts unwanted spaces between parameters in some cases, or lacks to insert spaces or commas in other cases, and PRINT appends CR, chr$(0Dh), at the end of the statement (unless it was terminated by comma or semicolon).
In short, PRINT works much unpredictable - PRINT your data to the screen instead of to the drive to see how it comes out.

  When using the PRINT# statement, if you use commas (,) to separate
  items on the line, the items will be separated by some blank spaces,
  as if it were being formatted for the screen.  Semicolons (;) don't
  result in any extra spaces.

  Numeric data written in the file takes the form of a string, as if the
  STR$ function had been performed on it before writing it out.  The
  first character will be a blank space if the number is positive, and a
  minus sign (-) if the number is negative.  Then comes the number, and
  the last character is the cursor right character.

Using INPUT#, GET#, and STATUS
INPUT# receives strings, any commas or carriage returns (CR) in the file are treated as string end. GET# receives single characters, commas and CRs can be read as such, note that binary data comes out as CHR$(nn), the binary value can be retrieved by ASC function. The ST or STATUS system variable can be used to detect the end of the file.

Using CLOSE
It is extremely important that you properly CLOSE files once you are
finished using them. Closing the file causes DOS to properly allocate
blocks in the BAM and to finish the entry in the directory. If you
don't CLOSE the file, all your data will be lost!

You should also be careful not to CLOSE the error channel (channel
15) before CLOSEing your data channels. The error channel should be
OPENed first and CLOSEd last of all your files! That will keep your
programs out of trouble.

If you close the error channel while other files are OPEN, the disk
drive will close them for you, but BASIC will still think they are
open (unless you CLOSE them properly), let you to try to write to them.

NOTE: If your BASIC program leads you into an error condition, all
files are CLOSEd in BASIC, without CLOSEing them on your disk drive!
This is a very dangerous condition. You should immediately type the
statement OPEN 15, 8, 15, "I". This will re-initialize your drive and
make all your files safe.


 Disk Command and Error Channel

Channel 15 is used as command and error channel, allowing to send commands to the disk drive, and, in the other direction, to receive status information.

OPEN / Filename
Like data channels, the channel must be opened before using it, but a filename is not required. The filename field may be left out, or it may contain a command (allowing to send the first command directly along with the OPEN function).

Command Format
All commands are to be sent as ASCII text string, terminated by CR:
  "COMMAND:parameters",0dh
  "SPECIAL-COMMAND:parameters",0dh
Commands can be abbreviated by using the first character of each word, ie.
  "C:parameters",0dh
  "S-C:parameters",0dh
Some commands, have more than one parameter, separated by commas or spaces or other characters (depending on the command).
Numeric parameters must be sent as decimal text string, ie. the value 80h (128 decimal) takes up three characters: "1", "2", "8". The only exception are the "MEMORY-" commands and the "POSITION" command which are using binary parameters.


PRINT#15,

  "NEW:name,id"  format the entire disk, and set disk name and 2 chars ID
  "NEW:name"     clears the directory without re-formatting the whole disk
  "COPY:newfile=oldfile"      copy a file (source and dest both on same disk)
  "COPY:newfile=f1,f2,f3,f4"  copy max 4 files into 1 file
  "RENAME:newname=oldname"    rename a file
  "SCRATCH:name"              delete a file (may use wildcards)
  "INITIALIZE"          closes any open files and reboots the drive
  "VALIDATE"            defragments the disk (do not use with random files)
  "DUPLICATE"           reserved for dual drives (1:1 copy of a whole disk)


General Disk Managment Commands
 NEW                "N
 COPY               "C:new file=:original file
 RENAME             "R:new name=old name"
 SCRATCH            "S:file name"
 INITIALIZE         "I
 VALIDATE           "V
 DUPLICATE          not for single drives
 C64/default speed  "UI+"
 VIC 20 speed       "UI-"
Special Random File Commands
 BLOCK-ALLOCATE     "B-A: drive track block"
 BLOCK-FREE         "B-F: drive track block"
 BLOCK-READ         "B-R: channel drive track block"
 BLOCK-WRITE        "B-W: channel drive track block"
 BLOCK-EXECUTE      "B-E: channel drive track block"
 BUFFER-POINTER     "B-P: channel position"
 USER1 (UA) (READ)  "U1: channel drive track block"
 USER2 (UB) (WRITE) "U2: channel drive track block"
Special Relative File Command
 POSITION           "P", channel+96, record_lsb, record_msb [,position]
Disk Controller Commands
 MEMORY-READ        "M-R", address_lsb, address_msb
 MEMORY-WRITE       "M-W", address_lsb, address_msb, length, data[length]
 MEMORY-EXECUTE     "M-E", address_lsb, address_msb
 USER Commands      "Un"

 U3 or UC      jump to 0500h
 U4 or UD      jump to 0503h
 U5 or UE      jump to 0506h
 U6 or UF      jump to 0509h
 U7 or UG      jump to 050Ch
 U8 or UH      jump to 050Fh
 U; or UJ      jump to [FFFC] power-up vector

Error Channel Format
NN is the error number (to be interpreted by software), NAME is the error name (to be output to screen if wanted), TR and BL usually specify the track and block number where the error has occured.
  "NN,NAME,TR,BL",0dh
NN, TR, and BL are numbers in two-digit string format. The items are separated by commas, and the error message is terminated by CR, chr(0dh).
After the error message has been received, the error channel gets cleared (ie. reset to 00/OK) automatically.

Description of DOS Error Messages
  00 OK                 - No error.
  01 NAME???      - No error. Response to SCRATCH (TR=number of files deleted)
  02-19 N/A       - No error. Reserved for status messages (should be ignored)
  20 READ ERROR         - Block header not found
  21 READ ERROR         - No sync mark found on track
  22 READ ERROR         - Data block not present
  23 READ ERROR         - Checksum error in data block
  24 READ ERROR         - Byte decoding error
  25 WRITE ERROR        - Write-verify error
  26 WRITE PROTECT ON   - Attempt to write with closed write-protect notch
  27 READ ERROR         - Checksum error in header
  28 WRITE ERROR        - No sync mark found after written data block
  29 DISK ID MISMATCH   - Unformatted disk or bad header
  30 SYNTAX ERROR       - Invalid command parameters
  31 SYNTAX ERROR       - Unrecognized command
  32 SYNTAX ERROR       - Command/parameters longer than 58 characters
  33 SYNTAX ERROR       - Wildcards used in OPEN/SAVE command
  34 SYNTAX ERROR       - Missing filename in command string
  39 SYNTAX ERROR       - Unrecognized command. "Command file not found" ???
  50 RECORD NOT PRESENT - Reading past the last record.
   Positioning to a record beyond end of file in a relative file. If the
   intent is to expand the file by adding the new record (with a PRINT#
   command), the error message may be ignored. INPUT or GET should not be
   attempted after this error is detected without first repositioning.
  51 OVERFLOW IN RECORD - Writing exceeds record boundary.
  52 FILE TOO LARGE     - Record position in relative file exceeds disk space
  60 WRITE FILE OPEN    - Tried to open a file for read while open for write
  61 FILE NOT OPEN      - Tried to access a file that is not open
  62 FILE NOT FOUND     - The requested file does not exist
  63 FILE EXISTS        - The filename of the file being created already exists
  64 FILE TYPE MISMATCH - File type does not match file type in directory
  65 NO BLOCK           - B-A command fail (TR,BL=next free block, 00,00=None)
  66 ILLEGAL TRACK AND SECTOR - Illegal track or block number
  67 ILLEGAL SYSTEM T OR S    - Illegal system track or block
  70 NO CHANNEL         - Too many channels used, or requested channel not free
  71 DIRECTORY ERROR    - BAM messed up (on floppy disk, or in drive RAM)
  72 DISK FULL          - Disk or directory full. Close requires 2 free blocks
  73 CBM DOS V2.6 1541  - Power-up message (note that 73 is also used below)
  73 DOS MISMATCH       - DOS2.X cannot <write> to old DOS1-formatted disks
  74 DRIVE NOT READY    - Disk missing
CHR(0-255) -- Binary data returned after MEMORY-READ command

Retrieving Error Messages in BASIC
Because the BASIC operating system doesn't explicitely support disk drives, it will usually come up with a meaningless "FILE NOT FOUND" message even if the error was actually caused by an unformatted disk.
A small program is required to receive more detailed error information:
  10 OPEN 1, 8, 15            ;open the error channel
  20 INPUT# 1, A, B$, T, B    ;read error_code, error_name, track, block
  30 PRINT A, B$, T, B        ;display it
  RUN                         ;start (INPUT works only with line numbers)
The error_name parameter contains a text string (equivalent to error_code information, but more convinient for human users). The other three parameters always contain numbers and can be interpreted by software.


 Disk Data Channels & File Types

The channel# is a data channel, number 2 through 14.
A maximum of five sequential files may be opened at one time to the DOS. Direct access channels (what is a direct access channel???) may have six opened files. (Does that mean 5 PLUS 6 data channels in total???)

Sequential Files
Sequential files consist of one or more data blocks, each block contains 254 bytes data, and a pointer to position of the next block. That format makes it necessary to read through all previous blocks to find the position of the last block.
Sequential files are accessed by opening a data channel, with the following expression in the file_name field:
  OPEN file_name_field: "[@]0:filename[,file_type,direction]"
The leading "@" optionally indicates to overwrite an existing file of same name. The "0:" should always precede the filename or the drive will only allow to use two buffers. The filename may contain wildcards (opening the first matching file when reading). Sequential file types are:
  PRG or P - Sequential Program (with BASIC tokens, used for LOAD/SAVE)
  SEQ or S - Sequential Data File (typically containing ASCII text data)
  USR or U - Sequential User File (unspecified content)
Direction may be READ or R for input, WRITE or W for output. Type and direction may be left out when opening an existing file for reading.
Specifying "$" as filename opens the directory (read-only), reading directory data comes out as BASIC program, filesizes encoded in the linenumber fields.

Relative Files
The data blocks in relative files have exactly the same format as sequential files, the filesystem additionally creates 'side sectors' which contain a list of all data blocks used in the file, allowing it to find a specific data block on disk without having to read all previous data blocks.
When a Relative file is first to be used, the OPEN statement will create that file; after that, the same file will be used. The replace option (with the @ sign) does not erase and re-create the file. The file can be expanded, read, and written into.
  OPEN file_name_field: "filename,L,", record_length
Filetype (REL or L) and record size may be left out when opening an existing file. Note that record_length is a binary value (not a text string).
Relative files are split into records, the record size may be 1..254 bytes and is defined when creating the file, there may be up to 65535 records in each file, records may overlap from one data block into the next. However, data may NOT overlap from one record into the next; in order to read or write, you must, before any operation, use the POSITION command to move the file pointer to the correct record position.
  "P", channel+96, record_lsb, record_msb [,character_position]
The POSITION command changes the file pointer, but does NOT write anything to, or read anything from the file. Moving the file pointer beyond the end of the file produces a RECORD NOT PRESENT error, you should check for that message (in order to remove it from the error channel), but you may ignore it if you want to expand the file; writing to the data channel will expand the filesize by appending new record(s) up to the specified record number.
  character_position specifies the address (1..size) inside of the record.
  If it is not specified, character_position defaults to 1.
  HOW does that separate between ending chr(0dh) and character_pos ???
  Include the character_position number, when adding fields.   WHY ???

Random Files
Random files consist of raw sectors, marked as allocated in the BAM. Unlike real files, a random "file" does not include any filename or directory entry. Accessing a random file requires two channels: the command channel (15), and a data channel (2..14).
Caution: Because there is no directory entry, executing the VALIDATE command will deallocate any blocks used by random files (assuming that these blocks have been allocated by mistake).
  OPEN file_name_field: "\[n]"
For the data channel "\" or "\n" should be specified as filename (either using any buffer, or selecting a specific buffer eg. "\2"). Note: The backslash, chr(5Ch), will appear as pound sign on the C64 keyboard and in the C64 charset.
  PRINT# cmd_file_number, "BLOCK-ALLOCATE:drive track block"
  PRINT# cmd_file_number, "BLOCK-FREE:    drive track block"
Use BLOCK-ALLOCATE to mark a specific track/sector as used in the BAM. The allocation will fail if the block is already in use, the error channel does then return "65,NO BLOCK,TR,BL". Whereas, <TR,BL> will indicate the next higher unused sector, if any, or <00,00> if there's none. The BLOCK-FREE command can be used to de-allocate a block.
  PRINT# cmd_file_number, "BLOCK-READ:    data_channel drive track block"
  PRINT# cmd_file_number, "U1:            data_channel drive track block"
The BLOCK-READ command reads up to 256 characters, but stops reading when the buffer-pointer stored with the block says that block is finished. The USER1 command (U1 or UA) performs the BLOCK-READ operation, but first forces the pointer to 255 in order to read the entire block of data from the disk.
  PRINT# cmd_file_number, "BLOCK-WRITE:   data_channel drive track block"
  PRINT# cmd_file_number, "U2:            data_channel drive track block"
The BLOCK-WRITE command writes the contents of the buffer to the block on the disk along with the value of the buffer-pointer. The USER2 command (U2 or UB) writes the buffer without disturbing the buffer-pointer value already stored on that block of the diskette. Note that you must fill or modify the buffer through data channel <before> issuing BLOCK-WRITE or USER2 through command channel.
  PRINT# cmd_file_number, "BUFFER-POINTER:data_channel location"
The BUFFER-POINTER command moves the read/write pointer to the specified address (0..255) in the buffer of the file, reading/writing to the data channel does then access that address (and up).
  !! When the data is being put into the buffer, a pointer in the DOS keeps
  !! track of how many characters there are, when you perform the BLOCK-WRITE
  !! operation, that pointer is recorded on the disk (WHAT WHERE HOW ???).


 Disk Programming the Disk Controller

BLOCK-EXECUTE
This command will load a block from the diskette containing a machine
language routine, and begin executing it at location 0 in the buffer
until a RTS (ReTurn from Subroutine) command is encountered.
  FORMAT FOR BLOCK-EXECUTE:
  PRINT#file#, "B-E: data_channel drive track block"

MEMORY-READ
There is 16K of ROM in the disk drive as well as 2K of RAM. You can
get direct access to these, or to the buffers that the DOS has set up
in the RAM, by using the MEMORY commands. MEMORY-READ allows you to
select which byte to read, through the error channel.
  MEMORY-READ:
  PRINT#file#, "M-R",addr_lsb,addr_msb
The next byte read using the GET# statement through channel# 15, the
error channel, will be from that address in the disk controller's
memory, and successive bytes will be from successive memory locations.
Any INPUT# to the error channel will give peculiar results when you're
using this command. This can be cleared up by any other command to
the disk (aside from a memory command).

MEMORY-WRITE
The MEMORY-WRITE command allows you to write up to 34 bytes at a time
into the disk controller's memory.
  MEMORY-WRITE:
  PRINT#file#, "M-W", addr_lsb, addr_msb, len, data[len]

MEMORY-EXECUTE and USER COMMANDS
Any routine in the DOS memory, RAM or ROM, can be executed with the
MEMORY-EXECUTE command.
  "M-E", addr_lsb, addr_msb  ;jump to addr   Any address in RAM or ROM
  "U3" or "UC"               ;jump to 500h   Buffer 2, Index 00h
  "U4" or "UD"               ;jump to 503h   Buffer 2, Index 03h
  "U5" or "UE"               ;jump to 506h   Buffer 2, Index 06h
  "U6" or "UF"               ;jump to 509h   Buffer 2, Index 09h
  "U7" or "UG"               ;jump to 50Ch   Buffer 2, Index 0Ch
  "U8" or "UH"               ;jump to 50Fh   Buffer 2, Index 0Fh
  "U;" or "UJ"               ;jump to [FFFC] Power-up vector


 Disk Format

Block Distribution by Track
The disks are having 35 tracks (1-35), track 1 is at the outer rim, track 35 is at the center hub, track 18 contains the directory. The number of blocks per track decreases towards inner tracks:
  Track Numbers  Block Numbers  Total Size (Tracks * Blocks)
  1..17          0..20          17*21=357
  18..24         0..18          7*19=133
  25..30         0..17          6*18=108
  31..35         0..16          5*17=85
There's a total of 683 blocks (sectors) of 256 bytes on the disk.
However, all 19 blocks in Track 18 are used for the directory, so that only 664 blocks are free for data. And, the first two bytes in each sector are used by the filesytem, leaving only 254 bytes to the user.
Note: The DOS (disk operating system) fills up the diskette from the center outward, ie. starting at track 35.

1540/1541 Block Availability Map (BAM) Format (Track 18, Sector 0)
  Index  Expl.
  00,01  Track and sector of first directory block   (18,01)
  02     ASCII character "A" indicating 4040 format  (41h)
  03     Null flag for future DOS use.               (00h)
  04-8F  Bit map of available blocks for tracks 1-35
Each bit represents one block, 1 = available block, 0 = block not available.
BAM contains space for 1120 blocks ??? Are blocks on track 18 included ???
Is that 4 bytes per track ???

1540/1541 Directory Header (Track 18, Sector 0)
  Index  Expl.
  90-A1  144-161  Disk name 18 characters padded with shifted spaces
  A2-A3  162-163  Disk ID two characters
  A4     164      Shifted space                       (A0h)
  A5-A6  165,166  DOS version "2" and format type "A" (32h,41h)
  A6-A7  Shifted spaces                      (A0h,A0h)
  AB-FF  Nulls, not used                     (00h filled)
Index A6 used twice ??? Index A8-AA unspecified ???
Note: ASCII characters may appear in locations 180 thru 191 on some diskettes.

Directory Format (Track 18, Sectors 1..18)
The directory consists of 144 file entries (stored in 18 sectors of 8 entries each).
  Index  Expl.
  00,01  Track and sector of next directory block
  02-1F  File entry 1
  22-3F  File entry 2
  42-5F  File entry 3
  62-7F  File entry 4
  82-9F  File entry 5
  A2-BF  File entry 6
  C2-DF  File entry 7
  E2-FF  File entry 8
Note that there are two unused bytes between each file entry.

Structure of single Directory Entry
  Index    Expl.
  00       128+type
             File type OR'ed with 80h to indicate properly closed file.
             Types: 0=DELeted, 1=SEQuential, 2=PROGram, 3=USER, 4=RELative
  01,02    Track and sector of 1st data block.
  03-12    File name 16 characters padded with shifted spaces (=A0h).
  ???      Relative file only: track and sector for first side sector block.
  ???      Relative file only: Record size.
  13-1B    Unused (zero filled).
  ???      Track and sector of replacement file when OPEN@ is in effect.
  1C-1D    Number of blocks in file: low byte, high byte.

Sequential Format
  00,01  Track and sector of next sequential data block.
  02-FF  254 bytes of data with carriage returns as record terminators.

Program File Format
  00,01  Track and sector of next block in program file.
  02-FF  254 bytes of program info stored in CBM memory format (with key
         words tokenized). End of file is marked by three zero bytes.

Random File Format
  00-FF  Data
Random files consist of blocks marked as used in the BAM, and the full 256 bytes of each block can be used for data. These "files" do not have a filename or directory entry.

Relative File Format
Side Sector Block(s):
  00,01   Track and block of next side sector block.
  02      Side sector number. (0-5)
  03      Record length.
  04-0F   Track and block of side sector number 0-5.
  10-FF   Track and block pointers to 120 data blocks.
Data Block(s):
  00,01   Track and block of next data block.
  02-FF   254 bytes of data.
Empty records contain FFh in the first byte followed by 00h to the end of the record. Partially filled records are padded with nulls (00h).
A blank disk provides space for 664 data blocks (plus 6 side sectors), so that the last some entries in the last side sector are typically not used.

1540/1541 Format: Expanded View of a Single Sector
Each sector consists of a header, followed by the actual data field, each with separate leading SYNC signal, and ending GAP space.
  Header:     SYNC, 08, ID1, ID2, TRK, BLK, CHKSUM, GAP1
  Data Field: SYNC, 07, DATA[256], CHKSUM, GAP
Note: The drive doesn't include a Index Hole LED, the first sector will be thus positioned anywhere on the track.


 Disk and File Images

.PRG .P00 .LNX .SDA .SFX .D64

The following are common file formats used by C64 emulators.
The VIC20 uses the same extensions, same Basic Tokens, and same cassette and disk formats.

Program Files (Extension .PRG)
Contains the original load address in first two bytes, followed by the actual program or data (which is usually loaded to the computers MEMBOT+1 address, NOT to the original address in the file).
  - Original 16bit memory address (typically MEMBOT+1)
  - BASIC line(s)
  - Two zero bytes (End of BASIC program)
  - Binary data (eg. machine code) (if any)
Each BASIC line:
  - 16bit pointer to next line (in respect to original load address)
  - 16bit line number
  - BASIC expressions (consisting of tokens and ascii text)
  - One zero byte (End of line)
Typical values for MEMBOT+1 are: 801h (C64), and 401h, 1001h, or 1201h (VIC20; depending on amount of installed RAM).

Self-Extracting C64 files (.LNX .SDA .SFX)
These are just normal .PRG files with uncommon extensions. The extension is meant to indicate that the file will self-extract itself after it has been loaded into the C64 (or emulator). Respectively, you will need a blank disk (or disk image) to store the extracted file(s).

"Encapsulated" C64 File Images (Typically with extension .P00)
C64 File Images contain the actual C64 file data, plus additional information from the C64 disks directory, that info is parts of stored in the images filename/extension, and parts of in a 26 bytes header. The images filename and extension should be:
  <FILENAME>.<T><NN>
<FILENAME> may be up to 8 characters long, and may contain letters "A"-"Z" and numbers "0"-"9" only, ideally this name would be composed of the the first some characters of the original 16 char C64 filename - in practice there's often little or no relationship, making it almost impossible to find a C64-Image by C64-Filename.
<T> indicates the file type:
  P - Program file (PRG)
  S - Sequential file (SEQ)
  U - User file (USR)
  D - Deleted file (DEL)
  R - Relative file (REL)
<NN> may be a number in range "00"-"99", allowing to use the same <FILENAME> for different files. Note that the number "64" should be avoided for 'deleted' files because the extension ".D64" is also used for C64 disk images.
The first 26 bytes of the image contain the image header:
  Index Size Expl.
  00h   07h+1  Image ID "C64File", ended by 00h
  08h   10h+1  Original 16 character C64 Filename, padded with 00h
  19h   01h    Record size for REL files (00h for other files)
  1ah   ...    Original file image with load address (same as .PRG file)
Data blocks are 254 bytes each, excluding the track/block bytes stored on C64 disks???
Relative files are assumed to be stored one data block after another, the C64s "side sectors" are thus not required and are not included in the file???

C64 Disk Images (Extension .D64)
Contains a raw disk image, including for the BAM and directory in the middle of the disk/image, but without any image header or disk formatting information. The filesize is 174848 bytes, for 683 blocks, of 256 bytes each.
The images may contain so-called "random files", but the image format is not suitable for copy protected disks - which may contain unformatted tracks, may use reversed sector numbers, may use different number of bytes per block, etc.


 Disk Memory Map and I/O Ports

Memory Map
  0000-07FF  Work RAM (2 KBytes)
  0800-17FF  Not used
  1800-180F  I/O - VIA#1 (serial data & control)
  1810-1BFF  Not used
  1C00-1C0F  I/O - VIA#2 (drive data & control)
  1C10-BFFF  Not used
  C000-FFFF  Disk ROM (16 KBytes)

Work RAM
  0000-0103  System Area
  0104-01FF  Stack Area
  0200-02FF  System Area
  0300-03FF  Buffer 0
  0400-04FF  Buffer 1
  0500-05FF  Buffer 2
  0600-06FF  Buffer 3
  0700-07FF  Buffer 4

1800h-180Fh - VIA 1: 6522, port for serial bus
  PB 7, CB2:  ATN IN
  PB 6,5:     Device address preset switches
  PB 4:       ATN acknowledge OUT
  PB 3:       CLOCK OUT
  PB 2:       CLOCK IN
  PB 1:       DATA OUT
  PB 0:       DATA IN

1C00h-1C0Fh - VIA 2: 6522, port for motor and read/write head control
  PA          data to and from read/write head
  PB 7:       SYNC IN
  PB 6,5:     Bit rate D1 and D0
  PB 4:       WPS - Write Protect Sense (1 = On)
  PB 3:       ACT - LED on drive
  PB 2:       MTR - drive motor
  PB 0,1:     step motor for head movement
  CA 1:       Byte ready
  CA 2:       SOE - Set Overflow Enable for 6502
  CA 3: (CA three?)  read/write

Versatile Interface Adapter 6522 (VIA)


 Disk Configuration

Changing the Disk Drive Device Number
When turned on, the drive checks its jumper settings to determine its device number (usually 8), and does then store the device number in RAM. If you have two drives with the same device number, disconnect one drive, enter the following expression to change the device number of the connected drive from X to Y, eg. 8 to 9, and then re-connect the other drive.
  open 1,x,15:print#1,"m-w" chr$(119) chr$(0) chr$(2) chr$(y+32) chr$(y+64)
For a permanent change, cut the jumpers on the drives mainboard:
  Device   Jumper A/1   Jumper B/2
  8        Don't cut    Don't cut   (default)
  9        Cut          Don't cut
  10       Don't cut    Cut
  11       Cut          Cut
Jumpers are labeled A,B in some drives, or 1,2 in others (btw. not J1,J2).

Changing the Drive Speed for VIC 20 or Commodore 64
The drive works with both VIC 20 and C64 computers. However, the transmission rate from drive to computer is different. When the drive is switched on it is set to C64 speed, but can be changed by UI or U9 command:
  OPEN 1,8,15,"UI-":CLOSE 1    ;VIC 20 speed
  OPEN 1,8,15,"UI+":CLOSE 1    ;Commodore 64 speed (default)
The actual speed(s) are unknown???
There is no jumper for permanent change???


 CPU 65XX Microprocessor

Overview
CPU Registers and Flags
CPU Memory Addressing

Instruction Set
CPU Memory and Register Transfers
CPU Arithmetic/Logical Operations
CPU Rotate and Shift Instructions
CPU Jump and Control Instructions
CPU Illegal Opcodes

Other Info
CPU Assembler Directives/Syntax
CPU Glitches
CPU The 65XX Family
CPU Local Usage


 CPU Registers and Flags

The 65XX CPUs are equipped with not more than three 8bit general purpose registers (A, X, Y). However, the limited number of registers (and complete lack of 16bit registers other than PC) is parts of covered by comfortable memory operations, especially page 0 of memory (address 0000h-00FFh) may be used for relative fast and complicated operations, in so far one might say that the CPU has about 256 8bit 'registers' (or 128 16bit 'registers') in memory. For details see Memory Addressing chapter.

Registers
  Bits Name  Expl.
  8    A     Accumulator
  8    X     Index Register X
  8    Y     Index Register Y
  16   PC    Program Counter
  8    S     Stack Pointer (see below)
  8    P     Processor Status Register (see below)

Stack Pointer
The stack pointer is addressing 256 bytes in page 1 of memory, ie. values 00h-FFh will address memory at 0100h-01FFh. As for most other CPUs, the stack pointer is decrementing when storing data. However, in the 65XX world, it points to the first FREE byte on stack, so, when initializing stack to top set S=(1)FFh (rather than S=(2)00h).

Processor Status Register (Flags)
  Bit  Name  Expl.
  0    C     Carry         (0=No Carry, 1=Carry)
  1    Z     Zero          (0=Nonzero, 1=Zero)
  2    I     IRQ Disable   (0=IRQ Enable, 1=IRQ Disable)
  3    D     Decimal Mode  (0=Normal, 1=BCD Mode for ADC/SBC opcodes)
  4    B     Break Flag    (0=IRQ/NMI, 1=BRK/PHP opcode)
  5    -     Not used      (Always 1)
  6    V     Overflow      (0=No Overflow, 1=Overflow)
  7    N     Negative/Sign (0=Positive, 1=Negative)

Carry Flag (C)
Caution: When used for subtractions (SBC and CMP), the carry flag is having opposite meaning as for normal 80x86 and Z80 CPUs, ie. it is SET when above-or-equal. For all other instructions (ADC, ASL, LSR, ROL, ROR) it works as normal, whereas ROL/ROR are rotating <through> carry (ie. much like 80x86 RCL/RCR and not like ROL/ROR).

Zero Flag (Z), Negative/Sign Flag (N), Overflow Flag (V)
Works just as everywhere, Z it is set when result (or destination register, in case of some 'move' instructions) is zero, N is set when signed (ie. same as Bit 7 of result/destination). V is set when an addition/subtraction exceeded the maximum range for signed numbers (-128..+127).

IRQ Disable Flag (I)
Disables IRQs when set. NMIs (non maskable interrupts) and BRK instructions cannot be disabled.

Decimal Mode Flag (D)
Packed BCD mode (range 00h..99h) for ADC and SBC opcodes.

Break Flag (B)
The Break flag is intended to separate between IRQ and BRK which are both using the same vector, [FFFEh]. The flag cannot be accessed directly, but there are 4 situations which are writing the P register to stack, which are then allowing the examine the B-bit in the pushed value: The BRK and PHP opcodes always write "1" into the bit, IRQ/NMI execution always write "0".


 CPU Memory Addressing

Opcode Addressing Modes
  Name           Native   Nocash
  Implied        -        A,X,Y,S,P
  Immediate      #nn      nn
  Zero Page      nn       [nn]
  Zero Page,X    nn,X     [nn+X]
  Zero Page,Y    nn,Y     [nn+Y]
  Absolute       nnnn     [nnnn]
  Absolute,X     nnnn,X   [nnnn+X]
  Absolute,Y     nnnn,Y   [nnnn+Y]
  (Indirect,X)   (nn,X)   [[nn+X]]
  (Indirect),Y   (nn),Y   [[nn]+Y]

Zero Page - [nn] [nn+X] [nn+Y]
Uses an 8bit parameter (one byte) to address the first 256 of memory at 0000h..00FFh. This limited range is used even for "nn+X" and "nn+Y", ie. "C0h+60h" will access 0020h (not 0120h).

Absolute - [nnnn] [nnnn+X] [nnnn+Y]
Uses a 16bit parameter (two bytes) to address the whole 64K of memory at 0000h..FFFFh. Because of the additional parameter bytes, this is a bit slower than Zero Page accesses.

Indirect - [[nn+X]] [[nn]+Y]
Uses an 8bit parameter that points to a 16bit parameter in page zero.
Even though the CPU doesn't support 16bit registers (except for the program counter), this (double-)indirect addressing mode allows to use variable 16bit pointers.

On-Chip Bi-directional I/O port
Addresses (00)00h and (00)01h are occupied by an I/O port which is built-in into 6510, 8500, 7501, 8501 CPUs (eg. used in C64 and C16), be sure not to use the addresses as normal memory. For description read chapter about I/O ports.

Caution
Because of the identical format, assemblers will be more or less unable to separate between [XXh+r] and [00XXh+r], the assembler will most likely produce [XXh+r] when address is already known to be located in page 0, and [00XXh+r] in case of forward references.
Beside for different opcode size/time, [XXh+r] will always access page 0 memory (even when XXh+r>FFh), while [00XXh+r] may direct to memory in page 0 or 1, to avoid unpredictable results be sure not to use (00)XXh+r>FFh if possible.


 CPU Memory and Register Transfers

Register to Register Transfer
  A8        nz----  2   TAY         Transfer Accumulator to Y    Y=A
  AA        nz----  2   TAX         Transfer Accumulator to X    X=A
  BA        nz----  2   TSX         Transfer Stack pointer to X  X=S
  98        nz----  2   TYA         Transfer Y to Accumulator    A=Y
  8A        nz----  2   TXA         Transfer X to Accumulator    A=X
  9A        ------  2   TXS         Transfer X to Stack pointer  S=X
Nocash syntax: MOV dest,source (eg. MOV Y,A = TAY).

Load Register from Memory
  A9 nn     nz----  2   LDA #nn     Load A with Immediate     A=nn
  A5 nn     nz----  3   LDA nn      Load A with Zero Page     A=[nn]
  B5 nn     nz----  4   LDA nn,X    Load A with Zero Page,X   A=[nn+X]
  AD nn nn  nz----  4   LDA nnnn    Load A with Absolute      A=[nnnn]
  BD nn nn  nz----  4*  LDA nnnn,X  Load A with Absolute,X    A=[nnnn+X]
  B9 nn nn  nz----  4*  LDA nnnn,Y  Load A with Absolute,Y    A=[nnnn+Y]
  A1 nn     nz----  6   LDA (nn,X)  Load A with (Indirect,X)  A=[WORD[nn+X]]
  B1 nn     nz----  5*  LDA (nn),Y  Load A with (Indirect),Y  A=[WORD[nn]+Y]
  A2 nn     nz----  2   LDX #nn     Load X with Immediate     X=nn
  A6 nn     nz----  3   LDX nn      Load X with Zero Page     X=[nn]
  B6 nn     nz----  4   LDX nn,Y    Load X with Zero Page,Y   X=[nn+Y]
  AE nn nn  nz----  4   LDX nnnn    Load X with Absolute      X=[nnnn]
  BE nn nn  nz----  4*  LDX nnnn,Y  Load X with Absolute,Y    X=[nnnn+Y]
  A0 nn     nz----  2   LDY #nn     Load Y with Immediate     Y=nn
  A4 nn     nz----  3   LDY nn      Load Y with Zero Page     Y=[nn]
  B4 nn     nz----  4   LDY nn,X    Load Y with Zero Page,X   Y=[nn+X]
  AC nn nn  nz----  4   LDY nnnn    Load Y with Absolute      Y=[nnnn]
  BC nn nn  nz----  4*  LDY nnnn,X  Load Y with Absolute,X    Y=[nnnn+X]
* Add one cycle if indexing crosses a page boundary.
Nocash syntax: MOV reg,op (MOV Y,12h; MOV X,[12h+Y]; MOV A,[[NN]+Y]; etc.)

Store Register in Memory
  85 nn     ------  3   STA nn      Store A in Zero Page     [nn]=A
  95 nn     ------  4   STA nn,X    Store A in Zero Page,X   [nn+X]=A
  8D nn nn  ------  4   STA nnnn    Store A in Absolute      [nnnn]=A
  9D nn nn  ------  5   STA nnnn,X  Store A in Absolute,X    [nnnn+X]=A
  99 nn nn  ------  5   STA nnnn,Y  Store A in Absolute,Y    [nnnn+Y]=A
  81 nn     ------  6   STA (nn,X)  Store A in (Indirect,X)  [[nn+x]]=A
  91 nn     ------  6   STA (nn),Y  Store A in (Indirect),Y  [[nn]+y]=A
  86 nn     ------  3   STX nn      Store X in Zero Page     [nn]=X
  96 nn     ------  4   STX nn,Y    Store X in Zero Page,Y   [nn+Y]=X
  8E nn nn  ------  4   STX nnnn    Store X in Absolute      [nnnn]=X
  84 nn     ------  3   STY nn      Store Y in Zero Page     [nn]=Y
  94 nn     ------  4   STY nn,X    Store Y in Zero Page,X   [nn+X]=Y
  8C nn nn  ------  4   STY nnnn    Store Y in Absolute      [nnnn]=Y
Nocash syntax: MOV op,reg (MOV [12h],A; MOV [12h+Y],X; MOV [[NN]+Y],A; etc.)

Push/Pull
  48        ------  3   PHA         Push accumulator on stack        [S]=A
  08        ------  3   PHP         Push processor status on stack   [S]=P
  68        nz----  4   PLA         Pull accumulator from stack      A=[S]
  28        nzcidv  4   PLP         Pull processor status from stack P=[S]
Notes: PLA sets Z and N according to content of A. The B-flag and unused flags cannot be changed by PLP, these flags are always written as "1" by PHP.
Nocash syntax: PUSH A; PUSH P; POP A; POP P.


 CPU Arithmetic/Logical Operations

Add memory to accumulator with carry
  69 nn     nzc--v  2   ADC #nn     Add Immediate           A=A+C+nn
  65 nn     nzc--v  3   ADC nn      Add Zero Page           A=A+C+[nn]
  75 nn     nzc--v  4   ADC nn,X    Add Zero Page,X         A=A+C+[nn+X]
  6D nn nn  nzc--v  4   ADC nnnn    Add Absolute            A=A+C+[nnnn]
  7D nn nn  nzc--v  4*  ADC nnnn,X  Add Absolute,X          A=A+C+[nnnn+X]
  79 nn nn  nzc--v  4*  ADC nnnn,Y  Add Absolute,Y          A=A+C+[nnnn+Y]
  61 nn     nzc--v  6   ADC (nn,X)  Add (Indirect,X)        A=A+C+[[nn+X]]
  71 nn     nzc--v  5*  ADC (nn),Y  Add (Indirect),Y        A=A+C+[[nn]+Y]
* Add one cycle if indexing crosses a page boundary.
Nocash syntax: ADC A,op (ADC A,12h; ADC A,[12h+X]; ADC A,[[NN]+Y]; etc.)

Subtract memory from accumulator with borrow
  E9 nn     nzc--v  2   SBC #nn     Subtract Immediate      A=A+C-1-nn
  E5 nn     nzc--v  3   SBC nn      Subtract Zero Page      A=A+C-1-[nn]
  F5 nn     nzc--v  4   SBC nn,X    Subtract Zero Page,X    A=A+C-1-[nn+X]
  ED nn nn  nzc--v  4   SBC nnnn    Subtract Absolute       A=A+C-1-[nnnn]
  FD nn nn  nzc--v  4*  SBC nnnn,X  Subtract Absolute,X     A=A+C-1-[nnnn+X]
  F9 nn nn  nzc--v  4*  SBC nnnn,Y  Subtract Absolute,Y     A=A+C-1-[nnnn+Y]
  E1 nn     nzc--v  6   SBC (nn,X)  Subtract (Indirect,X)   A=A+C-1-[[nn+X]]
  F1 nn     nzc--v  5*  SBC (nn),Y  Subtract (Indirect),Y   A=A+C-1-[[nn]+Y]
* Add one cycle if indexing crosses a page boundary.
Nocash syntax: SBC A,op (SBC A,12h; SBC A,[12h+X]; SBC A,[[NN]+Y]; etc.)
Note: Compared with normal 80x86 and Z80 CPUs, incoming and resulting Carry Flag are reversed.

Logical AND memory with accumulator
  29 nn     nz----  2   AND #nn     AND Immediate      A=A AND nn
  25 nn     nz----  3   AND nn      AND Zero Page      A=A AND [nn]
  35 nn     nz----  4   AND nn,X    AND Zero Page,X    A=A AND [nn+X]
  2D nn nn  nz----  4   AND nnnn    AND Absolute       A=A AND [nnnn]
  3D nn nn  nz----  4*  AND nnnn,X  AND Absolute,X     A=A AND [nnnn+X]
  39 nn nn  nz----  4*  AND nnnn,Y  AND Absolute,Y     A=A AND [nnnn+Y]
  21 nn     nz----  6   AND (nn,X)  AND (Indirect,X)   A=A AND [[nn+X]]
  31 nn     nz----  5*  AND (nn),Y  AND (Indirect),Y   A=A AND [[nn]+Y]
Nocash syntax: AND A,op (AND A,12h; AND A,[12h+X]; AND A,[[NN]+Y]; etc.)
* Add one cycle if indexing crosses a page boundary.

Exclusive-OR memory with accumulator
  49 nn     nz----  2   EOR #nn     XOR Immediate      A=A XOR nn
  45 nn     nz----  3   EOR nn      XOR Zero Page      A=A XOR [nn]
  55 nn     nz----  4   EOR nn,X    XOR Zero Page,X    A=A XOR [nn+X]
  4D nn nn  nz----  4   EOR nnnn    XOR Absolute       A=A XOR [nnnn]
  5D nn nn  nz----  4*  EOR nnnn,X  XOR Absolute,X     A=A XOR [nnnn+X]
  59 nn nn  nz----  4*  EOR nnnn,Y  XOR Absolute,Y     A=A XOR [nnnn+Y]
  41 nn     nz----  6   EOR (nn,X)  XOR (Indirect,X)   A=A XOR [[nn+X]]
  51 nn     nz----  5*  EOR (nn),Y  XOR (Indirect),Y   A=A XOR [[nn]+Y]
Nocash syntax: XOR A,op (XOR A,12h; XOR A,[12h+X]; XOR A,[[NN]+Y]; etc.)
* Add one cycle if indexing crosses a page boundary.

Logical OR memory with accumulator
  09 nn     nz----  2   ORA #nn     OR Immediate       A=A OR nn
  05 nn     nz----  3   ORA nn      OR Zero Page       A=A OR [nn]
  15 nn     nz----  4   ORA nn,X    OR Zero Page,X     A=A OR [nn+X]
  0D nn nn  nz----  4   ORA nnnn    OR Absolute        A=A OR [nnnn]
  1D nn nn  nz----  4*  ORA nnnn,X  OR Absolute,X      A=A OR [nnnn+X]
  19 nn nn  nz----  4*  ORA nnnn,Y  OR Absolute,Y      A=A OR [nnnn+Y]
  01 nn     nz----  6   ORA (nn,X)  OR (Indirect,X)    A=A OR [[nn+X]]
  11 nn     nz----  5*  ORA (nn),Y  OR (Indirect),Y    A=A OR [[nn]+Y]
Nocash syntax: OR A,op (OR A,12h; OR A,[12h+X]; OR A,[[NN]+Y]; etc.)
* Add one cycle if indexing crosses a page boundary.

Compare
  C9 nn     nzc---  2   CMP #nn     Compare A with Immediate     A-nn
  C5 nn     nzc---  3   CMP nn      Compare A with Zero Page     A-[nn]
  D5 nn     nzc---  4   CMP nn,X    Compare A with Zero Page,X   A-[nn+X]
  CD nn nn  nzc---  4   CMP nnnn    Compare A with Absolute      A-[nnnn]
  DD nn nn  nzc---  4*  CMP nnnn,X  Compare A with Absolute,X    A-[nnnn+X]
  D9 nn nn  nzc---  4*  CMP nnnn,Y  Compare A with Absolute,Y    A-[nnnn+Y]
  C1 nn     nzc---  6   CMP (nn,X)  Compare A with (Indirect,X)  A-[[nn+X]]
  D1 nn     nzc---  5*  CMP (nn),Y  Compare A with (Indirect),Y  A-[[nn]+Y]
  E0 nn     nzc---  2   CPX #nn     Compare X with Immediate     X-nn
  E4 nn     nzc---  3   CPX nn      Compare X with Zero Page     X-[nn]
  EC nn nn  nzc---  4   CPX nnnn    Compare X with Absolute      X-[nnnn]
  C0 nn     nzc---  2   CPY #nn     Compare Y with Immediate     Y-nn
  C4 nn     nzc---  3   CPY nn      Compare Y with Zero Page     Y-[nn]
  CC nn nn  nzc---  4   CPY nnnn    Compare Y with Absolute      Y-[nnnn]
* Add one cycle if indexing crosses a page boundary.
Nocash syntax: CMP reg,op (CMP X,12h; CMP A,[12h+X]; CMP A,[[NN]+Y]; etc.)
Note: Compared with normal 80x86 and Z80 CPUs, resulting Carry Flag is reversed.

Bit Test
  24 nn     xz---x  3   BIT nn      Bit Test   A AND [nn], N=[nn].7, V=[nn].6
  2C nn nn  xz---x  4   BIT nnnn    Bit Test   A AND [..], N=[..].7, V=[..].6
Nocash syntax: TEST A,op (TEST A,[12h]; TEST A,[1234h]; etc.)

Increment by one
  E6 nn     nz----  5   INC nn      Increment Zero Page    [nn]=[nn]+1
  F6 nn     nz----  6   INC nn,X    Increment Zero Page,X  [nn+X]=[nn+X]+1
  EE nn nn  nz----  6   INC nnnn    Increment Absolute     [nnnn]=[nnnn]+1
  FE nn nn  nz----  7   INC nnnn,X  Increment Absolute,X   [nnnn+X]=[nnnn+X]+1
  E8        nz----  2   INX         Increment X            X=X+1
  C8        nz----  2   INY         Increment Y            Y=Y+1
Nocash syntax: INC op/reg (INC [12h]; INC [1234h+X]; INC Y; etc.)

Decrement by one
  C6 nn     nz----  5   DEC nn      Decrement Zero Page    [nn]=[nn]-1
  D6 nn     nz----  6   DEC nn,X    Decrement Zero Page,X  [nn+X]=[nn+X]-1
  CE nn nn  nz----  6   DEC nnnn    Decrement Absolute     [nnnn]=[nnnn]-1
  DE nn nn  nz----  7   DEC nnnn,X  Decrement Absolute,X   [nnnn+X]=[nnnn+X]-1
  CA        nz----  2   DEX         Decrement X            X=X-1
  88        nz----  2   DEY         Decrement Y            Y=Y-1
Nocash syntax: DEC op/reg (DEC [12h]; DEC [1234h+X]; DEC Y; etc.)


 CPU Rotate and Shift Instructions

Shift Left
  0A        nzc---  2   ASL A       Shift Left Accumulator   SHL A
  06 nn     nzc---  5   ASL nn      Shift Left Zero Page     SHL [nn]
  16 nn     nzc---  6   ASL nn,X    Shift Left Zero Page,X   SHL [nn+X]
  0E nn nn  nzc---  6   ASL nnnn    Shift Left Absolute      SHL [nnnn]
  1E nn nn  nzc---  7   ASL nnnn,X  Shift Left Absolute,X    SHL [nnnn+X]
Nocash syntax: SHL op/reg (SHL A; SHL [12h]; SHL [1234h+X]; etc.)

Shift Right
  4A        0zc---  2   LSR A       Shift Right Accumulator  SHR A
  46 nn     0zc---  5   LSR nn      Shift Right Zero Page    SHR [nn]
  56 nn     0zc---  6   LSR nn,X    Shift Right Zero Page,X  SHR [nn+X]
  4E nn nn  0zc---  6   LSR nnnn    Shift Right Absolute     SHR [nnnn]
  5E nn nn  0zc---  7   LSR nnnn,X  Shift Right Absolute,X   SHR [nnnn+X]
Nocash syntax: SHR op/reg (SHR A; SHR [12h]; SHR [1234h+X]; etc.)

Rotate Left through Carry
  2A        nzc---  2   ROL A       Rotate Left Accumulator  RCL A
  26 nn     nzc---  5   ROL nn      Rotate Left Zero Page    RCL [nn]
  36 nn     nzc---  6   ROL nn,X    Rotate Left Zero Page,X  RCL [nn+X]
  2E nn nn  nzc---  6   ROL nnnn    Rotate Left Absolute     RCL [nnnn]
  3E nn nn  nzc---  7   ROL nnnn,X  Rotate Left Absolute,X   RCL [nnnn+X]
Nocash syntax: RCL op/reg (RCL A; RCL [12h]; RCL [1234h+X]; etc.)

Rotate Right through Carry
  6A        nzc---  2   ROR A       Rotate Right Accumulator RCR A
  66 nn     nzc---  5   ROR nn      Rotate Right Zero Page   RCR [nn]
  76 nn     nzc---  6   ROR nn,X    Rotate Right Zero Page,X RCR [nn+X]
  6E nn nn  nzc---  6   ROR nnnn    Rotate Right Absolute    RCR [nnnn]
  7E nn nn  nzc---  7   ROR nnnn,X  Rotate Right Absolute,X  RCR [nnnn+X]
Nocash syntax: RCR op/reg (RCR A; RCR [12h]; RCR [1234h+X]; etc.)

Notes:
ROR instruction is available on MCS650X microprocessors after June, 1976.
ROL and ROL rotate an 8bit value through carry (rotates 9bits in total).


 CPU Jump and Control Instructions

Normal Jumps
  4C nn nn  ------  3   JMP nnnn    Jump Absolute              PC=nnnn
  6C nn nn  ------  5   JMP (nnnn)  Jump Indirect              PC=WORD[nnnn]
  20 nn nn  ------  6   JSR nnnn    Jump and Save Return Addr. [S]=PC+2,PC=nnnn
  40        nzcidv  6   RTI         Return from BRK/IRQ/NMI    P=[S], PC=[S]
  60        ------  6   RTS         Return from Subroutine     PC=[S]+1
Nocash syntax: JMP nnnn; JMP [nnnn]; CALL nnnn (=JSR); RETI; RET (=RTS).
Note: RTI cannot modify the B-Flag or the unused flag.
Glitch: For JMP [nnnn] the operand word cannot cross page boundaries, ie. JMP [03FFh] would fetch the MSB from [0300h] instead of [0400h]. Very simple workaround would be to place a ALIGN 2 before the data word.

Conditional Branches (Branch on condition, to PC=PC+/-nn)
  10 dd     ------  2** BPL/JNS disp          ;N=0 (plus/positive)
  30 dd     ------  2** BMI/JS  disp          ;N=1 (minus/negative/signed)
  50 dd     ------  2** BVC/JNO disp          ;V=0 (no overflow)
  70 dd     ------  2** BVS/JO  disp          ;V=1 (overflow)
  90 dd     ------  2** BCC/BLT/JNC/JB  disp  ;C=0 (less/below/no carry)
  B0 dd     ------  2** BCS/BGE/JC/JAE  disp  ;C=1 (above/greater/equal/carry)
  D0 dd     ------  2** BNE/BZC/JNZ/JNE disp  ;Z=0 (not zero/not equal)
  F0 dd     ------  2** BEQ/BZS/JZ/JE   disp  ;Z=1 (zero/equal)
Nocash syntax: Jxx nnnn; Native syntax: Bxx nnnn.
** The execution time is 2 cycles if the condition is false (no branch executed). Otherwise, 3 cycles if the destination is in the same memory page, or 4 cycles if it crosses a page boundary (see below for exact info).
Note: After subtractions (SBC or CMP) carry=set indicates above-or-equal, unlike as for 80x86 and Z80 CPUs.

Interrupts, Exceptions, Breakpoints
  00        ---1--  7   BRK   Force Break B=1 [S]=PC+1,[S]=P,I=1,PC=[FFFE]
  --        ---1--  ??  /IRQ  Interrupt   B=0 [S]=PC,[S]=P,I=1,PC=[FFFE]
  --        ---1--  ??  /NMI  NMI         B=0 [S]=PC,[S]=P,I=1,PC=[FFFA]
  --        ---1--  T+6 /RESET Reset      PC=[FFFC],I=1
Notes: IRQs can be disabled by setting the I-flag, a BRK command, a NMI, and a /RESET signal cannot be masked by setting I.
BRK/IRQ/NMI first change the B-flag, then write P to stack, and then set the I-flag, the D-flag is NOT changed and should be cleared by software.
The same vector is shared for BRK and IRQ, software can separate between BRK and IRQ by examining the pushed B-flag only.
The RTI opcode can be used to return from BRK/IRQ/NMI, note that using the return address from BRK skips one dummy/parameter byte following after the BRK opcode.
Software or hardware must take care to acknowledge or reset /IRQ or /NMI signals after processing it.
  IRQs are executed whenever "/IRQ=LOW AND I=0".
  NMIs are executed whenever "/NMI changes from HIGH to LOW".
If /IRQ is kept LOW then same (old) interrupt is executed again as soon as setting I=0. If /NMI is kept LOW then no further NMIs can be executed.

CPU Control
  18        --0---  2   CLC         Clear carry flag            C=0
  58        ---0--  2   CLI         Clear interrupt disable bit I=0
  D8        ----0-  2   CLD         Clear decimal mode          D=0
  B8        -----0  2   CLV         Clear overflow flag         V=0
  38        --1---  2   SEC         Set carry flag              C=1
  78        ---1--  2   SEI         Set interrupt disable bit   I=1
  F8        ----1-  2   SED         Set decimal mode            D=1
Nocash Syntax: CLC; EI (=CLI); CLD, CLV; STC; DI (=STI); STD.

No Operation
  EA        ------  2   NOP         No operation                No operation

Conditional Branch Page Crossing
The branch opcode with parameter takes up two bytes, causing the PC to get incremented twice (PC=PC+2), without any extra boundary cycle. The signed parameter is then added to the PC (PC+disp), the extra clock cycle occurs if the addition crosses a page boundary (next or previous 100h-page).


 CPU Illegal Opcodes

SAX and LAX
  87 nn     ------  3   SAX nn      STA+STX  [nn]=A AND X
  97 nn     ------  4   SAX nn,Y    STA+STX  [nn+Y]=A AND X
  8F nn nn  ------  4   SAX nnnn    STA+STX  [nnnn]=A AND X
  83 nn     ------  6   SAX (nn,X)  STA+STX  [WORD[nn+X]]=A AND X
  A7 nn     nz----  3   LAX nn      LDA+LDX  A,X=[nn]
  B7 nn     nz----  4   LAX nn,Y    LDA+LDX  A,X=[nn+Y]
  AF nn nn  nz----  4   LAX nnnn    LDA+LDX  A,X=[nnnn]
  A3 nn     nz----  6   LAX (nn,X)  LDA+LDX  A,X=[WORD[nn+X]]
  B3 nn     nz----  5*  LAX (nn),Y  LDA+LDX  A,X=[WORD[nn]+Y]
For SAX, both A and X are output to databus, LOW-bits are stronger than HIGH-bits, resulting in a "forceful" AND operation.
For LAX, the same value is written to both A and X.

Combined ALU-Opcodes
Opcode high-bits, flags, commands:
  00+yy        nzc---  SLO op   ASL+ORA   op=op SHL 1 // A=A OR op
  20+yy        nzc---  RLA op   ROL+AND   op=op RCL 1 // A=A AND op
  40+yy        nzc---  SRE op   LSR+EOR   op=op SHR 1 // A=A XOR op
  60+yy        nzc--v  RRA op   ROR+ADC   op=op RCR 1 // A=A+op+cy
  C0+yy        nzc---  DCP op   DEC+CMP   op=op-1     // A-op
  E0+yy        nzc--v  ISC op   INC+SBC   op=op+1     // A=A-op-(1-cy)
Opcode low-bits, clock cycles, operands:
  07+xx nn        5    nn       [nn]
  17+xx nn        6    nn,X     [nn+X]
  03+xx nn        8    (nn,X)   [WORD[nn+X]]
  13+xx nn        8    (nn),Y   [WORD[nn]+Y]
  0F+xx nn nn     6    nnnn     [nnnn]
  1F+xx nn nn     7    nnnn,X   [nnnn+X]
  1B+xx nn nn     7    nnnn,Y   [nnnn+Y]

Other Illegal Opcodes
  0B nn     nzc---  2  ANC #nn          AND+ASL  A=A AND nn, C=N ;bit7 to carry
  2B nn     nzc---  2  ANC #nn          AND+ROL  A=A AND nn, C=N ;same as above
  4B nn     nzc---  2  ALR #nn          AND+LSR  A=(A AND nn) SHR 1
  6B nn     nzc--v  2  ARR #nn          AND+ROR  A=(A AND nn), V=Overflow(A+A),
                                                 A=A/2+C*80h, C=A.Bit6
  CB nn     nzc---  2  AXS #nn          CMP+DEX  X=(X AND A)-nn
  EB nn     nzc--v  2  SBC #nn          SBC+NOP  A=A-nn         cy?
  BB nn nn  nz----  4* LAS nnnn,Y       LDA+TSX  A,X,S = [nnnn+Y] AND S

NUL/NOP and KIL/JAM/HLT
  xx        ------  2   NOP        (xx=1A,3A,5A,7A,DA,FA)
  xx nn     ------  2   NOP #nn    (xx=80,82,89,C2,E2)
  xx nn     ------  3   NOP nn     (xx=04,44,64)
  xx nn     ------  4   NOP nn,X   (xx=14,34,54,74,D4,F4)
  xx nn nn  ------  4   NOP nnnn   (xx=0C)
  xx nn nn  ------  4*  NOP nnnn,X (xx=1C,3C,5C,7C,DC,FC)
  xx        ------  -   KIL        (xx=02,12,22,32,42,52,62,72,92,B2,D2,F2)
NOP doesn't change any registers or flags, the operand (if any) is fetched, may be useful for delays, patches, or for read-sensitive I/O ports. KIL halts the CPU, the data bus will be set to #$FF, KIL can be suspended by /RESET signal (not sure if also by /IRQ or /NMI ???).

Unstable Illegal Opcodes
  8B nn     nz----  2  XAA #nn    ((2)) TXA+AND  A=X AND nn
  AB nn     nz----  2  LAX #nn    ((2)) LDA+TAX  A,X=nn
  BF nn nn  nz----  4* LAX nnnn,X       LDA+LDX  A,X=[nnnn+X]
  93 nn     ------  6  AHX (nn),Y ((1))          [WORD[nn]+Y] = A AND X AND H
  9F nn nn  ------  5  AHX nnnn,Y ((1))          [nnnn+Y] = A AND X AND H
  9C nn nn  ------  5  SHY nnnn,X ((1))          [nnnn+X] = Y AND H
  9E nn nn  ------  5  SHX nnnn,Y ((1))          [nnnn+Y] = X AND H
  9B nn nn  ------  5  TAS nnnn,Y ((1)) STA+TXS  S=A AND X  // [nnnn+Y]=S AND H
note to XAA: DO NOT USE!!! Highly unstable!!!
note to LAX: DO NOT USE!!! On my C128, this opcode is stable, but on my C64-II
it loses bits so that the operation looks like this: ORA #? AND #{imm} TAX.
note to AXS: performs CMP and DEX at the same time, so that the MINUS sets
the flag like CMP, not SBC.
Combinations of STA/STX/STY:
 AHX {adr} = stores A&X&H into {adr}
 SHX {adr} = stores X&H into {adr}
 SHY {adr} = stores Y&H into {adr}
note: sometimes the &H drops off. Also page boundary crossing will not work as
expected (the bank where the value is stored may be equal to the value stored).
["H" probably meant to be the MSB aka Highbyte of the 16bit memory address?]


 CPU Assembler Directives/Syntax

Below are some common 65XX assembler directives, and the corresponding expressions in 80XX-style language.

  65XX-style    80XX-style         Expl.
  .native       .nocash            select native or nocash syntax
  *=$c100       org 0c100h         sets the assumed origin in memory
  *=*+8         org $+8            increments origin, does NOT produce data
  label         label:             sets a label equal to the current address
  label=$dc00   label equ 0dc00h   assigns a value or address to label
  .by $00       db 00h             defines a (list of) byte(s) in memory
  .byt $00      defb 00h           same as .by and db
  .wd $0000     dw 0000h           defines a (list of) word(s) in memory
  .end          end                indicates end of source code file
  |nn           [|nn]              force 16bit "00NN" instead 8bit "NN"
  #<nnnn        nnnn AND 0FFh      isolate lower 8bits of 16bit value
  #>nnnn        nnnn DIV 100h      isolate upper 8bits of 16bit value

Special Directives
  .65xx       Select 6502 Instruction Set
  .nes        Create NES ROM-Image with .NES extension
  .c64_prg    Create C64 file with .PRG extension/stub/fixed entry
  .c64_p00    Create C64 file with .P00 extension/stub/fixed entry/header
  .vic20_prg  Create VIC20/C64 file with .PRG extension/stub/relocated entry
  end entry   End of Source, the parameter specifies the entrypoint
The C64 files contain Basic Stub "10 SYS<entry>" with default ORG 80Eh.

VIC20 Stub
The VIC20 Stub is "10 SYSPEEK(44)*256+<entry>" with default ORG 1218h, this relocates the entryoint relative to the LOAD address (for C64: 818h, for VIC20: 1018h (Unexpanded), 0418h (3K Expanded), 1218h (8K and more Expansion). It does NOT relocate absolute addresses in the program, if the program wishes to run at a specific memory location, then it must de-relocate itself from the LOAD address to the desired address.


 CPU Glitches

Dummy Read Cycles at Page-Wraps
Dummy reads occur when reads from [nnnn+X] or [nnnn+Y] or [WORD[nn]+Y] are crossing page boundaries, this applies only to raw read-opcodes, not for write or read-and-modify opcodes (ie. only for opcodes that include an extra clock cycle on page boundaries, such as LDA, CMP, etc.)
For above reads, the CPU adds the index register to the lower 8bits of the 16bit memory address, and does then read from the resulting memory address, if the addition caused a carry-out, then an extra clock cycle is used to increment the upper 8bits of the address, and to read from the correct memory location. For example, a read from [1280h+X] with X=C0h produces a dummy read from [1240h], followed by the actual read from [1340h].
Dummy reads cause no problems with normal ROM or RAM, but may cause problems with read-sensitive I/O ports (eg. IRQ flags that are automatically cleared after reading, or data-registers that are automatically incrementing accociated memory pointers, etc.)

Dummy Write Cycles in Read-Modify-Opcodes
Dummy writes occur in all read-modify opcodes, ie. all INC, DEC, Shift, Rotate opcodes with memory operands. The opcodes consist of three memory accesses: read original value, write dummy value, write result value.
Dummy writes cause no problems with normal RAM, but may cause problems (or may be useful) with write-sensitive I/O ports (eg. IRQ flags that are cleared by writing certain values, or data-registers that are automatically incrementing accociated memory pointers, etc.)
On the C64 and C16, the written dummy value appears to be equal to the original value, a couple of programs are using this to acknowledge IRQs.
On the NES, the dummy value appears to be equal to the result value, though more or less unstable ANDed with a random number. Presumably 00h is output during the first half of the write cycle, and the result only during the second half, not leaving enough time to raise all bits from LOW to high. Also, dummy writes to [2007h] aren't always recognized (ie. the VRAM address register isn't always incremented twice), presumably because the PPU isn't fast enough to realize two write-signals immediately after each other, that maybe because it is attempting to synchronize CPU bus writes with the PPU bus.


 CPU The 65XX Family

Different versions of the 6502:

All of these processors are the same concerning the software-side:
 6501   Some sort of 6502 prototype
 6502   Used in the CBM floppies and some other 8 bit computers.
 6507   Used in Atari 2600, 28pins (only 13 address lines, no /IRQ, no /NMI).
 6510   Used in C64, with built-in 6bit I/O port.
 7501   Used in C16,C116,Plus/4, with built-in 7bit I/O Port, without /NMI pin.
 8500   Used in C64-II, with different pin-outs.
 8501   Same as 7501
 8502   Used in C128s.

Some processors of the family which are not 100% compatible:
 65C02  Extension of the 6502, used in the C16, C116 and the Plus/4 computers?
 65SC02 Small version of the 65C02 which lost a few opcodes again.
 65CE02 Extension of the 65C02, used in the C65.
 65816  Extended 6502 with new opcodes and 16 bit operation modes.
 2A03   Nintendo NES/Famicom, modified 6502 with built-in sound controller.



 CPU Local Usage

C64
6510A 8bit CPU, 1.02 MHz (NTSC) or 0.98 MHz (PAL), compatible with 6502, with built-in I/O Ports at addresses 0000h and 0001h.
Video DMA to Character Memory takes place without waitstates, however, DMA to Matrix memory (in each 8th scanline), and DMA to Sprite memory (if any) stalls the CPU. For more info see
C64 VIC Dimensions and Timings

VIC20
CPU: 6502A, 1.02 MHz (NTSC), 1.11 MHz (PAL).
Because of the low resolution/dot clock, all Video DMA takes place in Phase 1, without any CPU waitstates.

C16/Plus4
CPU: 7501/8501, single-speed clock 0.894886 MHz (NTSC), 0.886724 MHz (PAL).
6502 compatible with on-chip 7bit I/O Port, with double-speed mode, without NMI input.
In single-speed mode, the CPU is clocked in Phase 2 only, most video DMA and DRAM refresh take place without waitstates during Phase 1. However, 80 bytes screen/color data must be fetched for each character row, which is probably done in phase 2 (unless it is squeezed into hblank periods of previous lines?).
In twice-speed mode, CPU is clocked in both phases, theoretically running at more than than 1.7MHz, because of the Phase 1 Video DMA the full speed is achieved only in Hblank & Vblank periods, minus whatever (?) cycles spent on DRAM refresh.

Disk Drive
Uses the 6502, too. Clock frequency is unknown.


 Z80 Microprocessor Cartridge

Z80 Cartridge
Optionally, the C64 can be upgraded by an external Z80 CPU cartridge, the clock frequency of this CPU is unknown???. Even when the Z80 cartridge is connected, the C64 still operates in 6510 mode as usually, but programs may now freely switch back and forth between 6510 and Z80 modes, however, as both CPUs need to access the data/addressbus, both cannot be operated simultaneously.
Both 6510 and Z80 are accessing the same RAM (and ROM, and I/O ???) being built-in into the C64, as each CPU expects special data at address 0000h, all memory has been 'shifted' by 1000h bytes. The Z80 addresses 0000h-EFFFh refer to 1000h-FFFFh of normal C64 memory, and Z80 F000h-FFFFh wraps to 0000h-0FFFh of C64 memory.

CPU Mode Switching
The example code below illustrates switching to Z80 mode, executing a simple 'program' in Z80 mode, and switching back to 6510 mode. First, write the following opcodes into memory at C64-addresses 1000h and up, ie. Z80 addresses 0000h and up.
  C64   Z80   Opcode    Disassembled      Comment
  1000  0000  00        nop               ;\the Commodore Z80 needs three NOPs
  1001  0001  00        nop               ; to stabilize after mode switching
  1002  0002  00        nop               ;/
  1003  0003  21 02 F5  ld   hl,0F502h    ;\the actual Z80 'program' increment
  1006  0006  34        inc  (hl)         ;/a byte in VRAM (C64 address=0502h)
  1007  0007  3E 01     ld   a,01h        ;\turn off Z80 again by I/O port
  1009  0009  32 00 CE  ld   (0CE00h),a   ;/(C64 address=DE00h)
  100C  000C  00        nop               ;\
  100D  000D  00        nop               ; again three NOPs to 'destabilize'
  100E  000E  00        nop               ;/
  100F  000F  C3        jp   0000h        ;-Huh? Should never execute this...
Now execute the following BASIC program from inside of C64 mode:
  10 poke 56333,127   :rem [DC0Dh]=7Fh, turn off 6510 irq's
  20 poke 56832,00    :rem [DE00h]=00h, turn on z80 card & execute Z80 code
  30 poke 56333,129   :rem [DC0Dh]=81h, turn on 6510 irq's when z80 done
Interrupts should be disabled during mode switching, but might be enabled while operating in Z80 mode, provided that Z80 /IRQ and /NMI lines are connected ???
When switching to Z80 mode, the Z80-CPU is apparently reset (and starts at Z80-address 0000h, of course RAM is not reset, so the Z80 may re-initialize itself from code and data stored in RAM).
When switching to 6510 mode, the 6510 CPU is NOT reset, and just continues where it had stopped before switching to Z80 mode ???

Commodore CP/M
The Z80 cartridge is mainly intended for use with CP/M software, thus sometimes referred to as CP/M cartridge, even though it contains a raw CPU without any BIOS or operating system ROM.
The cartridge should be usually delivered together with a Commodore CP/M disk. To start CP/M, turn on the computer, and load and start CP/M (all still from inside of normal C64 mode). The C64 provides 52K contiguous bytes of RAM for use in CP/M mode (of which 4K are used by the CP/M operating system, and 48K are free for CP/M software???).
Note: CP/M is a text based disk operating system (with similar appearance as MS DOS) which is used on many different Z80 computers.


 External Connectors

Joystick Ports - 2x SUB-D 9pin Male
The C64 has two "Control Ports", a digitial joystick or paddle can be connected to each Port 1 and Port 2. Also, a lightpen can be connected to Port 1.
  Pin Name      Expl.
  1   Switch 0  Joystick Up
  2   Switch 1  Joystick Down
  3   Switch 2  Joystick Left, or Paddle X-Button
  4   Switch 3  Joystick Right, or Paddle Y-Button
  5   POTY      Paddle Y-Axis
  6   Switch 4  Joystick Fire, or Lightpen (Port 1 only)
  7   +5V       Power Supply (max 50mA)
  8   GND       Ground
  9   POTX      Paddle X-Axis
Pin 1-5 in upper row, Pin 6-9 in lower row, from left to right each.
Note that Port 1 is CIA Port B, and Port 2 is CIA Port A (!). Respectively, it is everyones bet which port is to be treated as the "first" port, many games expect the joystick to be connected to Port 2 (CIA Port A), other games expect it at Port 1 (CIA Port B), and some of the better games work with either port.
See also:
Joystick Y-Cable

Cartridge Expansion Slot - 44 Pins Female
    Pin Expl.      Pin Expl.      Pin Expl.      Pin Expl.
    1   GND        12   BA        A   GND         N   A9
    2   +5V        13   /DMA      B   /ROMH       P   A8
    3   +5V        14   D7        C   /RESET      R   A7
    4   /IRQ       15   D6        D   /NMI        S   A6
    5   R/W        16   D5        E   02          T   A5
    6   Dot Clock  17   D4        F   A15         U   A4
    7   I/O1       18   D3        H   A14         V   A3
    8   /GAME      19   D2        J   A13         W   A2
    9   /EXROM     20   D1        K   A12         X   A1
   10   I/O2       21   D0        L   A11         Y   A0
   11   /ROML      22   GND       M   A10         Z   GND
Pin 1-22 in upper row, A-F,H,J-N,P,R-Z in lower row, from right to left each!

TV Output - Cinch Female
Outputs TV Signals (video and sound), channel switch may select between two channels ???

Audio/Video (6 or 8 Pin, DIN, Female)
  Pin  Expl.                 ++ ++
  1    Luminance           /  +-+  \
  2    GND                +  8   7  +
  3    Audio Out          | 3  6  1 |
  4    Video Out          +  5   4  +
  5    Audio In            \   2   /
  6    Chrominance           +---+
 (7)   N.C.
 (8)   +5V DC

Serial I/O (6 Pin, DIN, Female)
  Pin Expl.                  ++ ++
  1   Serial /SRQ In       /  +-+  \
  2   GND                 +  5   1  +
  3   Serial ATN Out      |    6    |
  4   Serial CLK In/Out   +  4   2  +
  5   Serial Data In/Out   \   3   /
  6   /RESET                 +---+
A printer, up to five disk drives, and other hardware can be (simultaneously) connected to the Serial I/O Port. Each peripheral should include two identical serial sockets, either one connected to the C64 (or previous device), the other one connected to the next device (if any).

Cassette - 12 Pins Male (actually 6 pins duplicated)
  Pin  Expl.
  A-1  GND
  B-2  +5V DC
  C-3  Cassette Motor (WHAT=On ???) (+9V UNREG DC ?)
  D-4  Cassette Read
  E-5  Cassette Write
  F-6  Cassette Sense (Switch PLAY Pressed ???, WHAT=Yes ???)
Pin 1-6 in upper row, Pin A-F in lower row, from left to right each.

User I/O (User Port) - 24 Pins Male
  Pin  Expl.               Pin  Expl.
  1    GND                 A    GND
  2    +5V DC (max 100 mA) B    /FLAG2
  3    /RESET              C    PB0
  4    CNT1                D    PB1
  5    SP1                 E    PB2
  6    CNT2                F    PB3
  7    SP2                 H    PB4
  8    /PC2                J    PB5
  9    SER. ATN OUT        K    PB6
  10   9V AC1 (max 100 mA) L    PB7
  11   9V AC2 (max 100 mA) M    PA2
  12   GND                 N    GND
Pin 1-12 in upper row, A-F,H,J-N in lower row, from left to right each.

Power Supply (7 Pin, DIN, Female)
  Pin    Expl.               ++ ++
  1      GND               /  +-+  \
  2      GND (or N.C.)    +  7   6  +
  3      GND              | 3     1 |
  4      +5V DC           +  5   4  +
  5      +5V DC            \   2   /
  6      +/-9V AC1           +---+
  7      +/-9V AC2
Most of the computer circuit is operated at +5V DC. The 9V AC voltage is internally converted into +9V UNREG (for cassette motor), and into +9V or +12V DC (for sound chip, voltage depends on type of chip used). Also, 9V AC are output to the user port. And, the 9V AC1 frequency (typically 50Hz or 60Hz, depending on wall socket) is used to feed to time of day clock.


 Transmit Function

The Xmit function allows to upload a .PRG or .P00 file from no$c64 (utility menu) to real C64. The required circuit consists of a parallel/printer cable connected to the user port signals, and a boot EPROM connected to the C64 expansion port signals. The feature has been very useful and comfortable when making and testing no$c64, and might be of some use for other programmers, at least if owning an eprom burner.

Features / Performance / Requirements
All transfer takes place automatically, there's no need to reset the C64 manually, nor to type LOAD or RUN. Transmission time should be max 3 seconds (for big 50K files). The circuit works with any parallel/printer port (both older one-directional, and newer bi-directonal ports). Transmission should work stable regardless of the PCs CPU speed, and even with multitasking operating systems. Windows NT and worse reportedly prevent to access the parallel port unless when installing a special driver to unlock the port (eg. Giveio, Totalio, Userport).

Transmit Circuit
The schematic shows the connection and pin numbers for the User port, Expansion Port, Eprom, and Printer port (USR, EXP, ROM, PRN). The circuit can be connected externally (to user/expansion port). Or inside of the C64 (circuit soldered directly to the mainboard, with Centronics socket installed in computers case, the EPROM socket can be 'stacked' on top of the BIOS ROM with 1:1 connection for most pins). The external solution would require a lot of messy/special cables, the internal solution works with a standard printer cable.
  Name    Pin                         Pin       Name
  PA2     USR.M     ----------------- PRN.1     /STROBE
  PB0-7   USR.C-L   ----------------- PRN.2-9   DATA0-7
  FLAG    USR.B     ----------------- PRN.11    BUSY
  GND     USR.A,N   ----------------- PRN.19-24 GND
  GND     USR.A,N   ----------------- PRN.14    /AUTOLF
  /INTRES EXP.C     ----------------- PRN.16/31 /INIT
  /EXROM  EXP.9     ---|>|---+---+--- PRN.17/36 /SELECT
  +5VDC   EXP.2     --[3K3]--'   '--- ROM.20    /CS
  /ROML   EXP.11    ----------------- ROM.22    /OE
  GND     EXP.1     ----------------- ROM.14    GND
  +5VDC   EXP.2     ----------------- ROM.1,26-28  A13-15,VCC
  D0-7    EXP.21-14 ----------------- ROM.11-13,15-19  D0-7
  A0-12   EXP.Y-K   ----------------- ROM.10-3,25,24,21,23,2  A0-12
The diode (1N4148) and resistor (3.3KOhm) used for compatibility with other expansion cartridges only, you can leave out the diode & resistor, and connect /EXROM directly to /SELECT. The grounded /AUTOLF signal used for compatibility with "geocab" parallel printer port adapter only. Use PRN pins 16,17 for DSUB 25pins plug or pins 31,36 for Centronics 36pins plug.

Boot EPROM
Here's the hex-dump, type up the bytes, or copy/paste in windows version, and use whatever preferred method to get the hex values into binary format.
  1E 81 00 00 C3 C2 CD 38 30 A9 1B 8D 11 D0 A9 08
  8D 16 D0 A9 04 09 10 8D 18 D0 A9 03 8D 00 DD A9
  00 8D 15 D0 A9 00 A9 02 8D 20 D0 8D 21 D0 A9 01
  A2 00 9D 00 D8 9D 00 D9 9D 00 DA 9D 00 DB E8 D0
  F1 A9 20 A2 00 9D 00 04 9D 00 05 9D 00 06 9D 00
  07 E8 D0 F1 A9 00 85 0C 85 0D 60 48 C9 0D D0 07
  A9 00 85 0C 4C 95 80 C9 0A D0 05 E6 0D 4C 95 80
  A9 00 85 0B A5 0D 0A 0A 65 0D 0A 0A 26 0B 0A 26
  0B 65 0C 85 0A A9 04 65 0B 85 0B 68 48 29 3F A2
  00 81 0A E6 0C 68 60 68 85 08 68 85 09 E6 08 D0
  02 E6 09 A2 00 A1 08 E6 08 D0 02 E6 09 C9 00 F0
  06 20 5B 80 4C A3 80 6C 08 00 A9 3B 8D 02 DD A9
  00 8D 03 DD 60 A9 04 2C 00 DD D0 FB AE 01 DD 2C
  00 DD F0 FB 8A 60 A0 00 A9 04 2C 00 DD D0 FB AD
  01 DD 91 02 C8 A9 04 2C 00 DD F0 FB AD 01 DD 91
  02 C8 D0 E4 E6 03 60 A9 00 A8 99 02 00 99 00 02
  99 00 03 C8 D0 F4 A9 3C 85 B2 A9 03 85 B3 A9 A0
  8D 84 02 A9 08 8D 82 02 A9 04 8D 88 02 60 A9 E7
  85 01 A9 2F 85 00 A2 00 8E 16 D0 20 A3 FD 20 F7
  80 20 15 FD 20 5B FF 58 4C 3B 81 20 53 E4 20 BF
  E3 20 22 E4 A2 FB 9A D0 00 A2 80 4C 4E 81 8A 20
  87 81 86 2D 84 2E A9 76 A0 A3 20 1E AB 20 59 A6
  20 33 A5 A9 04 85 C6 A2 09 BD 7D 81 9D 77 02 CA
  10 F7 A9 A4 48 A9 7F 48 A9 04 4C 7B 02 52 55 4E
  0D 2C 00 DD F0 FB 60 08 78 20 BA 80 A9 05 8D 20
  D0 20 C5 80 85 02 20 C5 80 85 03 20 C5 80 85 04
  20 C5 80 85 05 20 C5 80 85 06 20 C5 80 85 07 A9
  00 8D 20 D0 20 D6 80 C6 05 D0 F9 A9 04 2C 00 DD
  D0 FB A9 0F 8D 20 D0 A6 02 A4 03 28 60
Keep in mind to specify the correct target address when burning the EPROM, eg. when using a 27C512 chip (64KBytes) with A13-15 connected HIGH, use E000h as target address.

Notes
The circuit currently provides one-way communication from PC to C64 only, no$c64 sends data blindly without receiving checksum or status information, it'll be thus always report "Okay" even if the C64 is disconnected or switched off.
The C64 can be kept used as normal with disk and cassette programs, provided that the /SELECT and /INIT signals are HIGH (default setting after transmission, however, the PCs BIOS/OS may mess around with that signals when (re-)booting the computer, simply disconnect the parallel cable in case of problems).


 Joystick Y-Cable

Because of unclear programming specs, many C64 games are working only with joystick port 1, or only with joystick port 2, making it necessary to re-connect the joystick to appropriate port about each time when loading a new game.
Unlike normal Y-cables (which split one port into two ports), the nocash C64 Y-cable turns it the other way around and forcefully solves the problem by merging both ports into a single port.
The circuit consists of some wires, plugs/sockets, and 10 diodes (eg. 1N4148). Use two diodes for each of the 5 switches (directions and button), connected as such:
  C64 Port 1 ----|>|----+---- Joystick Switch
  C64 Port 2 ----|>|---/
  C64 Ground ---------------- Joystick Ground
The diodes ring is to be pointing to the joystick-side. Diodes used to keep the keyboard working when joystick is not moved. Both (two) diodes are required because some programs (eg. Bruce Lee) use reversed input/output direction for keyboard row/column ports.
The single joystick will act as if two joysticks are moved simultaneously into same direction. This works okay with most programs, but may confuse a few games, eg. Zaxxon produces some odd blinking when moved right.


 Links

This Document in TXT and HTM Format
http://nocash.emubase.de/c64.htm - homepage of no$c64 emulator/debugger
http://nocash.emubase.de/pagezero.htm - specs in HTM format
http://nocash.emubase.de/pagezero.txt - specs in TXT format

Project 64
http://project64.c64.org/archive.htm
Books and manuals converted into in plain clean raw ascii text format. The file C64PRG10.TXT has been essential when making no$c64 emulation and documentation. Also, 1541D10A.TXT and 154MAP10.TXT gave important info on the disk drive, and PLUS4M~1.TXT provided some valuable & rare info on C16.

funet.fi
http://www.funet.fi/pub/cbm/
Great collection of C64, VIC20, and PLUS4 related things in various categories, especially the schemactic sections have been very helpful when making no$c64.

Grahams 65xx processor series opcodes
http://oxyron.net/graham/opcodes.html
Info on documented and undocumented 6502 opcodes, the undocumented part is great, but the documented part lacks some fundamental details.

C=Hacking Magazine
http://www.ffd2.com/fridge/chacking/
Many thanks for articles Talking to TED, and Opening the Borders.

C64 Games
http://arnold.c64.org/